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Table 1 Demographics, geographic data, and clinical characteristics of low income women with gestational diabetes in Missouri (n = 1078)

From: Postpartum diabetes screening among low income women with gestational diabetes in Missouri 2010–2015

Demographics Median (IQR) or n(%)
Age at delivery 28 (24–33)
Advanced maternal age (35 + at delivery) 211 (19.6)
Race/ethnicity
 White non-Hispanic (or ethnicity unreported) 338 (31.4)
 Black non-Hispanic (or ethnicity unreported) 438 (40.6)
 Hispanic 168 (15.6)
 Asian 45 (4.2)
 Other (Native American, Pacific Islander, More than one Race) 37 (3.4)
 Missing/Unreported 52 (4.8)
 Preferred Language other than English 193 (17.9)
 Preferred Language not available 133 (12.3)
Geographic dataa
 Residence in county with metropolitan area > one million (n = 1044) 722 (69.2)
 Lived near public transportation (n = 1063) 739 (69.5)
 Distance from home to nearest health center (km) (n = 1041) 4.7 (2.2–10.4)
 Modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) by census tractb (n = 1053) 9.1 (4.8–14.3)
 Census tract of residence had no healthy food retailers by mRFEI (n = 1053) 199 (18.9)
Selected comorbidities and pregnancy complicationsc
 Pregnancy specific comorbidity index ≥ 1d 777 (72.1)
 Drug abuse 55 (5.1)
 Pre-existing depression 186 (17.3)
 Postpartum depression without pre-existing depression 45 (4.2)
 Asthma 95 (8.8)
 Pre-existing hypertension 153 (14.2)
 Transient gestational hypertension w/o pre-existing hypertension 73 (6.8)
 Mild pre-eclampsia 63 (5.8)
 Severe pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia 50 (4.6)
Selected delivery complicationse
 C-section (prior pregnancy) 258 (23.9)
 C-section (this pregnancy) 369 (34.2)
 Induction 340 (31.5)
 Cord complication 140 (13.0)
 Chorioamnionitis 112 (10.4)
 Preterm labor 80 (7.4)
 Abnormal forces of labor 66 (6.1)
 Malpresentation 67 (6.2)
 Obstruction of labor without dystocia 48 (4.5)
 Shoulder dystocia 40 (3.7)
  1. aMissing geographic data resulted from inability to match to home address to geocode, out of state address listed, or missing clinic information
  2. b Per the CDC, mean mRFEI in Missouri and nationally is 10
  3. c Other comorbidities present in less than 5% of the population: congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), alcohol abuse, pulmonary hypertension, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, cardiac valve disease, multiple gestation
  4. d In the validation cohort for the comorbidity index, developed in a Medicaid population, less than half the population had a score of 1 or higher. Each additional point increase in comorbidity index was associated with a 37% increase (95% CI 1.35–1.39) in maternal end organ injury or death from delivery to 30 days postpartum
  5. e Other delivery complications present in less than 5% of the population: fetopelvic disproportion, postpartum hemorrhage, placenta previa, placental abruption, other delivery infection, hypotension, severe laceration