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Table 3 Bivariate logistic regression of Binary variables influencing Open Defecation

From: Progress in sanitation among poor households in Kenya: evidence from demographic and health surveys

Factor Odds Ratio Linearized standard error t P > |t| 95% CI
Poverty status of household
 KDHS 2003 9.4 1.4 15.1 0.000 7–12.6
 KDHS 2008 9.4 1.7 12.3 0.000 6.6–13.5
 KDHS 2014 29.2 3.4 28.9 0.000 23.3–36.8
Lives in an urban area
 KDHS 2003 0.6 0.17 −1.8 0.077 0.35–1.1
 KDHS 2008 0.2 0.09 −3.7 0.000 0.09–0.5
 KDHS 2014 0.31 0.04 −9.2 0.000 0.24–0.4
Gender of household head
 KDHS 2003 1.5 0.17 3.3 0.001 1.2–1.8
 KDHS 2008 1.3 0.2 2.0 0.04 1–17
 KDHS 2014 1.1 0.1 1.6 0.1 1–1.2
Absence of farm animals
 KDHS 2003 n/a     
 KDHS 2008 0.9 0.1 −0.8 0.4 0.7–1.2
 KDHS 2014 0.7 0.1 −3.8 0.000 0.6–0.9
Educational level of household head
 KDHS 2003 4.3 0.5 11.6 0.000 3.4–5.5
 KDHS 2008 4.2 0.6 10.5 0.000 3.2–5.5
 KDHS 2014 3.9 0.3 17.7 0.000 3.3–4.5
Region of household(District/County)
 KDHS 2003 1.0 0.6 0.03 0.98 1–1.01
 KDHS 2008 1.0 0.03 −0.3 0.8 0.9–1.1
 KDHS 2014 1.0 0.003 2.9 0.004 1–1.01