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Table 1 Characteristics of the two study samples

From: Serum vitamin D levels in Berliners of Turkish descent –a cross-sectional study

  Women Men
  Berliners of Turkish descent
N = 330
Unselected Berliners without Turkish roots
N = 61
Berliners of Turkish descent
N = 207
Unselected Berliners without Turkish roots
N = 51
Sociodemographics % (n) or mean ± SD
Age (in years) 42.7 ± 12.9 44.4 ± 14.7 44.0 ± 11.6 49.4 ± 14.2
BMI (kg/m2)a 29.0 ± 6.1 24.5 ± 4.3 29.0 ± 4.6 25.9 ± 3.4
Education in years 9.7 ± 2.6 11.9 ± 1.6 10.1 ± 2.3 11.6 ± 1.8
Education categories     
  < 10 years 43.4 (121) 8.2 (5) 37.1 (72) 15.7 (8)
 10–12 years 37.3 (104) 24.6 (15) 42.3 (82) 23.5 (12)
  > 12 years 19.4 (54) 67.2 (41) 20.6 (40) 60.8 (31)
Lifestyle
Physical activity
  ≥ 150 min/d 12.1 (40) 45.9 (28) 11.6 (24) 52.9 (27)
  < 150 min/d 87.9 (290) 54.1 (33) 88.4 (183) 47.1 (24)
Smoking status     
 never- or ex-smoker 56.3 (178) 65.6 (40) 53.2 (108) 51.0 (26)
 current smoker 43.7 (138) 34.4 (21) 46.8 (95) 49.0 (25)
Alcohol consumption     
 none (0 g/d) 64.1 (177) 9.8 (6) 36.7 (69) 9.8 (5)
 moderate (> 0-12 g/d for women, > 0-24 g/d for men) 35.1 (97) 83.6 (51) 62.2 (117) 72.5 (37)
 hazardous (> 12 g/d for women, > 24 g/d for men) 0.7 (2) 6.6 (4) 1.1 (2) 17.6 (9)
Veiling (only women)    
 scarf and long clothes in summer 16.7 (43)
 scarf but no long clothes 7.0 (18)
 long clothes in summer but no scarf 3.1 (8)
 no 73.2 (188)
Self-report of diagnosed diseases     
 Osteoporosis 8.6 (22) 0 0.6 (1) 0
 Thyroid disease 32.7 (93) 16.4 (10) 5.8 (10) 3.9 (2)
 At least one cardiovascular diseaseb 33.6 (111) 11.5 (7) 27.5 (57) 39.2 (20)
 Diabetes 15.3 (42) 3.3 (2) 12.4 (22) 0
 At least one chronic diseasec 58.8 (174) 29.5 (18) 39.3 (72) 39.2 (20)
Serum concentrations     
 Vitamin D 25(OH) D serum concentration in nmol/L 22.5 ± 13.8 31.5 ± 13.8 22.9 ± 13.0 38.5 ± 26.7
 25(OH) D Statusd     
  < 50 nmol/L (“deficiency”) 94.8 (313) 86.9 (53) 95.2 (197) 78.4 (40)
 25- < 50 nmol/L (“moderate deficiency”) 24.5 (81) 50.8 (31) 29.0 (60) 43.1 (22)
  < 25 nmol/L (“severe deficiency”) 70.3 (232) 36.1 (22) 66.2 (137) 35.3 (18)
 50–75 nmol/L (“insufficiency”) 3.9 (13) 13.1 (8) 3.9 (8) 11.8 (6)
  > 75 nmol/L (“sufficiency”) 1.2 (4) 0 (0) 1.0 (2) 9.8 (5)
 Calcium (mmol/l) 2.3 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.1
  1. SD, standard deviation
  2. aHeight and weight were assessed by measurement among the Berliners of Turkish descent, while it was self-report among the unselected Berliners without Turkish descent
  3. bHypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, heart insufficiency, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or stroke
  4. cAt least one out of the diseases mentioned in this table
  5. dVitamin D status according to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM (Institute of Medicine) 2011)