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Table 3 Principals’ views and knowledge of food and beverage marketing overall and by school type

From: Food and beverage marketing in primary and secondary schools in Canada

  Agree n (%) Neutral n (%) Disagree n (%) p-Value
Overall Primary Secondary Overall Primary Secondary Overall Primary Secondary  
VIEWS
 I have concerns about the educational value of some teaching materials produced by food and beverage companies/industry associations 93 (64) 67 (64) 26 (63) 45 (31) 32 (31) 12 (29) 8 (5) 5 (5) 3 (7) 0.834
 Schools should be an environment that is free from the commercial pressures children face nowadays 116 (79) 84 (81) 31 (76) 23 (16) 16 (15) 7 (17) 7 (5) 4 (4) 3 (7) 0.642
 Exposing students to food/beverage marketing in schools is an acceptable trade-off for funds or resources that may otherwise not be available 27 (18) 19 (18) 7 (17) 40 (27) 26 (25) 14 (34) 79 (54) 59 (57) 20 (49) 0.534
 Schools should not be seen to promote a particular food/beverage brand or company 113 (77) 86 (83) 27 (66) 23 (16) 13 (13) 10 (24) 10 (7) 5 (5) 4 (10) 0.088
 It is perfectly acceptable to occasionally give students free samples of branded food or beverage products, regardless of nutritional profile 20 (14) 9 (9)a 11 (28)a 21 (14) 13 (13) 7 (18) 104 (72) 82 (79)b 22 (55)b 0.006
 It is only fair that food and beverage companies/industry associations gain some commercial benefit from providing schools with funds or other resources 24 (16) 11 (11)a 12 (29)a 40 (27) 30 (29) 10 (24) 82 (56) 63 (61) 19 (46) 0.021
 As long as the school benefits, it does not matter if a food/beverage company or industry association has a commercial motive for providing money or other resources 10 (7) 4 (4) 5 (12) 14 (10) 8 (8) 6 (15) 121 (83) 91 (88) 30 (73) 0.065
 Encouraging students to collect token from items with a high fat, salt or sugar content undermines teaching about healthy eating 119 (82) 83 (81) 35 (85) 13 (9) 9 (9) 4 (10) 13 (9) 11 (11) 2 (5) 0.546
 To expose a captive audience of school children to commercial food/beverage messages is exploitative/raises ethical concerns 118 (82) 87 (85) 31 (76) 17 (12) 7 (7)a 9 (22)a 9 (6) 8 (8) 1 (2) 0.022
 Most teachers in our school evaluate classroom materials for bias or promotional content 117 (81) 80 (78) 36 (89) 17 (12) 15 (15) 2 (5) 11 (8) 8 (8) 3 (7) 0.258
KNOWLEDGE
 Schemes that involves collecting tokens/vouchers unfairly influence students to buy certain items when given the opportunity, either at school or in the community 119 (83) 84 (82) 34 (83) 12 (8) 7 (7) 5 (12) 13 (9) 11 (11) 2 (5) 0.347
 Schools involvement with some food/beverage companies/industry associations may have an undesirable effect on the food choices that students make 118 (81) 86 (84) 32 (78) 16 (11) 9 (9) 6 (15) 11 (8) 8 (8) 3 (7) 0.579
 Food and beverage marketing is thought to be associated with childhood obesity 110 (76) 79 (77) 31 (76) 23 (16) 17 (17) 6 (15) 11 (8) 6 (6) 4 (10) 0.699
  1. Differences in Principals’ views and knowledge of food and beverage marketing were compared between primary and secondary schools using the chi-square test (p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance). Post hoc testing (z-test) with a Bonferroni correction was carried out when appropriate. Matching superscripts within rows denote statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Chi-square test result is unreliable as one or more cells have an expected value lower than 5