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Table 2 Distribution of the study population by clusters of functional and social disability representing the levels of complex medico-psychosocial problems

From: A new look at population health through the lenses of cognitive, functional and social disability clustering in eastern DR Congo: a community-based cross-sectional study

Variable Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 P value
WHODAS and morbidity factors
 Overall WHODAS 5.2 (0–10.9) 31.7 (24.7–39.7) 62.1 (53.2–75.7) 0.001
 Communication and understanding 0 (0–12.5) 41.7 (25–54.2) 70.8 (54.2–91.7] 0.001
 Mobility 0 (0–5.0) 30.0 (20.0–45.0) 65.0 (50.0–80.0) 0.001
 Self-care 0 (0–0) 0 (0–12.5) 50.0 (31.2–75.0) 0.001
 Getting along with people 0 (0–15.0) 25.0 (15.0–35.0) 55.0 (30.0–-70.0) 0.001
 Household activities 0 (0–12.5) 43.7 (25.0–56.2) 75.0 (62.5–93.7) 0.001
 Work or school activities 0 (0–12.5) 43.7 (31.2–56.2) 81.2 (68.7–93.7) 0.001
 Social participation 0 (0–16.6) 40.6 (28.1–53.1) 71.9 (59.4–84.4) 0.001
Enrolment status of the participant < 0.001
 Patient 148 (18.7) 133 (58.3) 78 (76.5)
 Caregiver 333 (42.2) 44 (19.3) 13 (12.8)
 Neighbor 309 (39.1) 51 (22.4) 11 (10.8)
Acute illness/30 days < 0.001
 No 599 (67.9) 113 (43.3) 21 (18)
 Yes 283 (32.1) 154 (57.7) 96 (82)
Child malnutrition 0.417
 No 843 (95.6) 259 (97) 114 (94.4)
 Yes 39 (4.4) 8 (3) 3 (2.6)
Blood pressure < 0.001
 Normal 543 (68.6) 115 (44.6) 32 (27.8)
 Self-reported HT 147 (18.6) 120 (46.5) 72 (62.6)
 Fortuitous HT discovery 101 (12.8) 23 (8.9) 11 (9.6)
Diabetes < 0.001
 No 758 (94.7) 192 (80.3) 87 (81.3)
 Yes 42 (5.3) 47 (16.7) 20 (18.7)
Socio-demographic characteristics
Place of residence < 0.001
 Urban 329 (39) 67 (26.2) 28 (24.6)
 Rural 514 (61) 189 (73.8) 86 (75.4)
Age 42.9 (16.4) 58.2 (15.3) 63.0 (18.0) < 0.001
Sex 0.001
 Female 519 (59.9) 187 (70.6) 82 (71.3)
 Male 348 (40.1) 78 (29.4) 33 (28.7)
SES 0.107
 Least poor 199 (22.6) 49 (18.5) 19 (16.2)
 Middle 361 (40.9) 102 (38.5) 44 (37.6)
 Poorest 322 (36.5) 114 (43) 54 (46.2)
Health zone < 0.001
 Bagira 329 (39.0) 67 (26.2) 28 (24.6)
 Miti-Katana 324 (38.4) 67 (26.2) 48 (42.1)
 Walungu 190 (22.6) 122 (47.6) 38 (33.3)
Marital status < 0.001
 Never married 116 (13.4) 3 (1.2) 2 (1.8)
 Married 628 (72.4) 192 (73.8) 64 (57.1)
 Divorced/widowed/separated 123 (14.2) 65 (25) 46 (41.1)
Tribe 0.073
 Shi 782 (89.4) 249 (93.6) 108 (93.10)
 Others 93 (10.6) 17 (6.4) 8 (6.9)
Religion 0.254
 Catholic 524 (59.4) 96 (36) 41 (35)
 Others 358 (40.6) 171 (64) 76 (65)
Listening to radio < 0.001
 No 346 (39.2) 80 (30) 32 (27.4)
 At least once a week 536 (60.8) 187 (70) 85 (72.7)
Occupation 0.004
 Formal salaried 85 (10.4) 19 (7.8) 15 (14.4)
 Informal 213 (25.9) 26 (10.7)) 13 (12.5)
 Farmer/petty trading 359 (43.7) 147 (60.2) 42 (40.4)
 No profession 164 (20) 52 (21.3) 34 (32.7)
Saving organization membership 0.013
 No 699 (80) 225 (85.2) 84 (72.4)
 Yes 175 (20) 39 (14.8) 32 (27.6)
Church attendance/week 0.170
  < = 1 time 452 (54.1) 125 (48.6) 56 (51.4)
 2–3 times 235 (28.2) 93 (36.2) 32 (29.6)
  > =times 148 (17.7) 39 (15.2) 21 (19.3)
  1. SES socio-economic status, HT hypertension