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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, and laboratory, physical exam, and carotid ultrasound results of community-dwelling individuals, stratified by sex and age groups

From: Value of the arterial stiffness index and ankle brachial index in subclinical atherosclerosis screening in healthy community-dwelling individuals

Variable N Mean ± SD Number (%) Age group (years) Sex
< 45 45~60 > 60 p Male Female p
Total 212 22 (10.4) 93 (43.9) 97 (45.7) < 0.001 98 (46.2) 114 (53.8) 0.30
Age (years) 212 57.7 ± 10.4 37.9 ± 4.5 53.06 ± 3.83 66.73 ± 5.38 < 0.001 60.34 ± 11.14 55.51 ± 9.30 < 0.001
BMI (kg/cm2) 212 23.81 ± 3.17 24.17 ± 3.26 23.36 ± 3.51 24.16 ± 2.76 0.188 24.43 ± 2.99 23.28 ± 3.23 0.008
BMR 210 1230.45 ± 227.75 1292 ± 244.11 1188.94 ± 224.74 1256.49 ± 222.41 < 0.001 1422.88 ± 167.36 1062.07 ± 109.03 < 0.001
BC (cm) 211 94.54 ± 6.65 95.5 ± 8.46 93.68 ± 6.62 95.16 ± 6.17 0.240 96.04 ± 5.82 93.27 ± 7.05 0.002
WC (cm) 211 79.81 ± 9.97 79.22 ± 10.54 77.15 ± 9.85 82.53 ± 9.31 < 0.001 85.98 ± 8.54 74.57 ± 7.9 < 0.001
BF (%) 210 27.63 ± 6.89 29.23 ± 6.71 28.10 ± 7.04 26.84 ± 6.75 0.245 23.79 ± 5 30.99 ± 6.57 < 0.001
DM 212 19 (8.96) 1 (5.26) 5 (26.32) 13 (68.42) 0.112 13 (68.42) 6 (31.58) 0.053
HTN 212 56 (26.42) 1 (1.79) 17 (30.36) 38 (67.86) < 0.001 32 (57.14) 24 (42.86) 0.062
SMK 212 46 (21.7) 3 (6.52) 16 (34.78) 27 (58.7) 0.127 44 (95.65) 2 (4.35) < 0.001
Alc 211 25 (11.85) 4 (16) 10 (40) 11 (44) 0.675 21 (84) 4 (16) < 0.001
Stressed 212 50 (23.58) 12 (24) 23 (46) 15 (30) < 0.001 22 (44) 28 (56) 0.747
SBP (mmHg) 212 122.76 ± 18.36 111.45 ± 9.97 119.23 ± 18.08 128.71 ± 18.14 < 0.001 127.07 ± 16.03 119.05 ± 19.47 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 212 78.87 ± 10.38 74.61 ± 6.98 79.04 ± 11.44 79.68 ± 9.79 0.115 80.93 ± 9.97 77.1 ± 10.44 0.007
Pulse (beats/min) 212 69.86 ± 9.29 73.88 ± 6.87 71.24 ± 9.12 67.62 ± 9.43 0.002 69.71 ± 10.04 69.99 ± 8.63 0.826
FBS (mg/dl) 212 96.43 ± 21.98 91.09 ± 10.4 94.96 ± 18.15 99.05 ± 26.58 0.214 98.13 ± 26.95 94.97 ± 16.54 0.297
URCA (mg/dl) 212 5.62 ± 1.38 5.71 ± 1.44 5.62 ± 1.33 5.61 ± 1.41 0.95 5.75 ± 1.49 5.51 ± 1.26 0.2
BUN (mg/dl) 212 14.11 ± 4.36 14.63 ± 3.44 13.86 ± 4.43 14.23 ± 4.49 0.703 14.44 ± 4.26 13.82 ± 4.43 0.29
Cr (mg/dl) 212 0.96 ± 0.73 1.4 ± 2.15 0.89 ± 0.22 0.92 ± 0.26 0.01 1.02 ± 1.04 0.90 ± 0.26 0.238
AST (units/L) 212 23.69 ± 7.5 21.72 ± 4.65 24.3 ± 8.68 23.56 ± 6.73 0.343 23.46 ± 7.78 23.89 ± 7.28 0.681
ALT (units/L) 212 23.37 ± 14.34 21.36 ± 6.44 24.29 ± 16.76 22.95 ± 13.09 0.641 23.17 ± 11.39 23.55 ± 16.5 0.84
TGL (mg/dl) 212 118.79 ± 73.41 109.13 ± 63.99 113.48 ± 67.46 126.08 ± 80.53 0.403 126.14 ± 83.5 112.48 ± 63.17 0.177
Chol (mg/dl) 212 210.56 ± 35.84 200.95 ± 39.42 213 ± 35.91 210.41 ± 34.93 0.367 202.65 ± 31.99 217.36 ± 37.66 0.002
LDL (mg/dl) 212 136.30 ± 31.80 131.22 ± 34.67 136.48 ± 34.40 137.29 ± 28.62 0.721 134.71 ± 28.43 137.67 ± 34.5 0.5
HDL (mg/dl) 212 50.04 ± 14.42 49.31 ± 15.61 52.56 ± 15.15 47.79 ± 13.12 0.071 43.89 ± 13.01 55.33 ± 13.49 < 0.001
CRP (mg/L) 212 0.21 ± 0.75 0.1 ± 0.06 0.14 ± 0.19 0.3 ± 1.09 0.280 0.23 ± 1 0.19 ± 0.44 0.735
HBA1C (%) 212 5.80 ± 1.09 5.57 ± 0.45 5.67 ± 0.90 5.97 ± 1.31 0.096 5.87 ± 1.32 5.74 ± 0.83 0.376
Mean flow (ml) 212 224.11 ± 38.91 240.53 ± 43.22 228.64 ± 41.06 216.05 ± 34 0.008 227.69 ± 39.29 221.04 ± 38.48 0.215
Mean RI 203 0.65 ± 0.04 0.64 ± 0.03 0.64 ± 0.03 0.67 ± 0.04 < 0.001 0.67 ± 0.04 0.64 ± 0.04 < 0.001
Mean ECA DIA (cm) 212 0.36 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.03 0.37 ± 0.03 < 0.001 0.37 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.03 < 0.001
Mean ICA DIA (cm) 212 0.43 ± 0.02 0.41 ± 0.02 0.42 ± 0.02 0.44 ± 0.02 < 0.001 0.43 ± 0.02 0.42 ± 0.02 < 0.001
Mean CCA DIA (cm) 212 0.57 ± 0.06 0.55 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.06 < 0.001 0.60 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.05 < 0.001
Mean VA DIA (cm) 210 0.313 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.03 0.066 0.32 ± 0.02 0.3 ± 0.02 < 0.001
cIMT 208 0.68 ± 0.11 0.58 ± 0.06 0.63 ± 0.08 0.74 ± 0.10 < 0.001 0.71 ± 0.11 0.65 ± 0.09 < 0.001
cIMT > 0.74 208 54 (25.96) 0 9 (16.67) 45 (83.33) < 0.001 36 (66.67) 18 (33.33) < 0.001
cPS 212 2.19 ± 2.72 0.4 ± 1.05 1.3 ± 1.66 3.46 ± 3.19 < 0.001 2.77 ± 2.95 1.7 ± 2.4 0.003
Plaque presence 212 72 (33.96) 2 (2.78) 18 (25) 52 (72.22) < 0.001 43 (59.72) 29 (40.28) 0.005
ASI 212 55.16 ± 20.51 47.9 ± 11.1 52.04 ± 17.07 59.79 ± 23.99 0.006 54.17 ± 15.66 56 ± 23.95 0.517
ABI 212 1.08 ± 0.07 1.07 ± 0.07 1.08 ± 0.06 1.08 ± 0.08 0.675 1.08 ± 0.07 1.07 ± 0.07 0.236
ABI < 0.95 212 9 (4.25) 1 (11.11) 3 (33.33) 5 (55.56) 0.795 3 (33.33) 6 (66.67) 0.509
  1. SD standard deviation, WC waist circumference, BC bottom circumference, BMI body-mass index, BMR basal metabolic rate, DM diabetes mellitus, HTN hypertension, SMK smoking, Alc alcohol consumption, BF body fat, Stressed having high stress, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBS fasting blood sugar, URCA uric acid level, BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cr creatinine, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, TGL triglycerides, Chol cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, CRP C-reactive protein, HBA1c glycated hemoglobin, cIMT carotid intima media thickness, cPS carotid plaque score, RI resistance index, ECA external carotid artery, ICA internal carotid artery, CCA common carotid artery, VA vertebral artery, DIA diameter, ASI arterial stiffness index, ABI ankle brachial index, p p value