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Table 3 Factors associated with human trafficking among migrants returned/deported via the three major human trafficking corridors, Ethiopia, 2016

From: Human trafficking among Ethiopian returnees: its magnitude and risk factors

Characteristics Trafficked (n = 1299) COR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI)
Yes No
Age (during departure) a
 18–20 190 61 7.70 (4.75–12.48) 4.65 (2.39–9.05)
 21–24 293 184 3.94 (2.56–6.04) 2.99 (1.66–5.38)
 25–29 121 325 0.92 (0.59–1.43) 0.59 (0.33–1.06)
 30–50 36 89 1.0 1.0
Sex
 Male 357 438 1.0 1.0
 Female 283 221 1.57 (1.25–1.97) 1.55 (1.10–2.17)
Marital Status
 Married 124 254 1.0 1.0
 Never married 96 391 2.60 (2.02–3.34) 1.49 (1.02–2.18)
 Divorced/Widowed 20 14 2.93 (1.43–5.99) 2.04 (0.69–6.06)
Educational level
 Illiterate 60 89 1.89(1.09 3.30) 3.01 (1.35–6.70)
 Primary school 213 189 3.16 (1.94–5.16) 2.64 (1.33–5.21)
 Junior School 187 158 3.32 (2.03–5.45) 2.61 (1.34–5.52)
 High school 154 150 2.88 (1.75–4.76) 3.05 (1.53–6.07)
 Preparatory and above 26 73 1.0 1.0
Residence before departure
 Rural 434 334 2.05 (1.64–2.57) 1.49 (1.03–2.16)
 Urban 206 325 1.0 1.0
Smuggled     
 No 121 323 1.0 1.0
 Yes 519 336 4.12 (3.21–5.29) 4.48 (3.19–6.29)
Exit corridor
 Metemma Yohannes 355 427 1.0 1.0
 Moyale 90 88 1.23 (0.89–1.70) 1.38 (0.85–2.24)
 Galafi 174 71 2.95 (2.16–4.02) 4.88 (3.07–7.76)
 Others b 21 73 0.35 (0.21–0.57) 0.46 (0.24–0.88)
Household wealth quintile
 Lowest 140 127 2.22 (1.56–3.15) 2.55 (1.46–4.44)
 Second 144 101 2.87 (2.00–4.11) 1.85 (1.05–3.26)
 Middle 153 123 2.50 (1.77–3.55) 2.47 (1.45–4.20)
 Fourth 115 131 1.77 (1.23–2.53) 1.65 (0.97–2.80)
 Highest 88 177 1.0 1.0
Exposure to seductive information about oversea life
 Low 183 271 1.0 1.0
 Medium 275 159 2.57 (1.95–3.36) 2.32 (1.55–3.48)
 High 182 229 1.18 (0.90–1.54) 0.94 (0.61–1.45)
Desire for successful oversea life
 Weak 176 263 1.0 1.0
 Moderate 201 242 1.24 (0.95–1.62) 1.73 (1.16–2.57)
 Strong 263 154 2.55 (1.94–3.36) 3.98 (2.63–6.02)
Risk-opportunity imbalance
 Low 156 289 1.0 1.0
 Medium 203 226 1.66 (1.27–2.18) 1.83 (1.21–2.77)
 High 281 144 3.62 (2.73–4.78) 6.10 (4.01–9.30)
Feeling hopelessness at success in home-country
 Weak 148 294 1.0 1.0
  Moderate 179 249 1.43 (1.08–1.88) 1.52 (1.02–2.27)
  Strong 313 116 5.36 (4.01–7.17) 8.64 (5.62–13.30)
  1. aChildren aged 14-17 were excluded from the analysis so as not to distort the result because all of them in this group were trafficked according to UN 2000 definition of human trafficking
  2. b Other exit gates mainly include Bole Airport, as well as Humera, Bosasso, and Gambella traveling corridors