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Table 2 Characteristics of participants and sociodemographic determinants associated with awareness towards hepatitis B (n = 764)

From: Knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among households in Malaysia: a community-based cross-sectional survey

Variable Frequency (%) Mean score (±SD) p-value Awareness (good/poor) Univariate logistic (good vs. poor) Multivariate logistic (good vs. poor)
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender    0.124      
 Male (R) 416 (54.5) 1.89 (1.31)   151/265 1   1  
 Female 348 (45.5) 2.09 (1.30)   146/202 1.27 (0.95–1.70) 0.110** 1.53 (1.07–2.18) 0.019
Age (years old)    < 0.001**      
 25–34 (R) 275 (36.0) 1.70 (1.28)   76/199 1   1  
 35–44 232 (30.4) 2.17 (1.20)   107/125 2.24 (1.55–3.24) < 0.001** 2.07 (1.36–3.16) 0.001**
 45–54 162 (21.2) 2.04 (1.35)   68/94 1.89 (1.26–2.85) 0.002** 1.81 (1.12–2.91) 0.015*
 55 and above 95 (12.4) 2.24 (1.46)   46/49 2.46 (1.52–3.98) < 0.001** 2.95 (1.58–5.53) 0.001**
Ethnicity    0.001**      
 Indian (R) 125 (16.4) 1.86 (1.35)   43/82 1   1  
 Malay 453 (59.3) 1.87 (1.27)   157/296 1.01 (0.67–1.53) 0.957 0.96 (0.62–1.49) 0.848
 Chinese 182 (23.8) 2.32 (1.34)   95/87 2.08 (1.30–3.33) 0.002** 1.75 (1.06–2.89) 0.027*
 Others 4 (0.5) 2.25 (1.50)   2/2 1.91 (0.26–14.01) 0.526 2.38 (0.29–19.43) 0.420
Marital status    < 0.001**      
 Single (R) 147 (19.2) 1.61 (1.32)   44/103 1   1  
 Married 600 (78.5) 2.08 (1.30)   248/352 1.65 (1.12–2.43) 0.012* 1.30 (0.79–2.12) 0.302
 Widowed and divorced 17 (2.2) 1.53 (1.13)   5/12 0.98 (0.32–2.93) 0.965 0.88 (0.26–2.94) 0.829
Employment status    0.745      
 Public sectors (R) 101 (13.2) 1.94 (1.30)   36/65 1   1  
 Private sectors 222 (29.1) 1.95 (1.35)   85/137 1.12 (0.69–1.83) 0.649 1.21 (0.72–2.02) 0.480
 Self-employment 184 (24.1) 2.04 (1.28)   77/107 1.30 (0.79–2.15) 0.306 1.28 (0.74–2.20) 0.382
 Student 27 (3.5) 1.78 (1.22)   8/19 0.76 (0.30–1.91) 0.560 1.36 (0.49–3.75) 0.556
 Retired 54 (7.1) 2.13 (1.42)   24/30 1.44 (0.74–2.83) 0.285 1.07 (0.48–2.36) 0.873
 Unemployed 156 (20.4) 1.92 (1.24)   57/99 1.04 (0.62–1.75) 0.884 0.96 (0.53–1.74) 0.889
 Others 20 (2.6) 2.30 (1.53)   10/10 1.81 (0.69–4.75) 0.231 1.411 (0.50–3.98) 0.516
Educational attainment    < 0.001**      
 Illiterate or primary school (R) 51 (6.7) 1.27 (1.20)   10/41 1   1  
 Secondary education 361 (47.3) 1.99 (1.32)   146/215 2.78 (1.35–5.73) 0.005** 3.58 (1.66–7.71) 0.001**
 Diploma/ certificate 193 (25.3) 2.02 (1.24)   77/116 2.72 (1.29–5.76) 0.009** 4.57 (2.00–10.44) < 0.001**
 Degree holder 131 (17.1) 2.02 (1.37)   49/82 2.45 (1.13–5.33) 0.024* 4.13 (1.75–9.75) 0.001**
 Postgraduate 28 (3.7) 2.64 (1.16)   15/13 4.73 (1.72–13.05) 0.003** 7.60 (2.55–22.68) < 0.001**
Family income (RM)    0.287      
  ≤ 2000 (R) 183 (24.0) 1.80 (1.37)   68/115 1    
 2001–3000 178 (23.3) 1.98 (1.20)   71/107 1.12 (0.73–1.72) 0.594   
 3001–4000 125 (16.4) 2.07 (1.36)   50/75 1.13 (0.71–1.80) 0.615   
 4001–5000 88 (11.5) 2.02 (1.20)   32/56 0.97 (0.57–1.64) 0.899   
  > 5000 190 (24.9) 2.07 (1.36)   76/114 1.13 (0.74–1.71) 0.573   
  1. *Significance at 0.05
  2. **Significance at 0.01
  3. aAnalysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
  4. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, R reference group, RM Ringgit Malaysia, SD standard deviation