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Table 1 Characteristics of participants and sociodemographic determinants associated with knowledge towards hepatitis B (n = 764)

From: Knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among households in Malaysia: a community-based cross-sectional survey

Variable Frequency (%) Mean score (±SD) p-valuea Knowledge (good/poor) Univariate logistic (good vs. poor) Multivariate logistic (good vs. poor)
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender    0.497      
 Male (R) 416 (54.5) 15.07 (3.77)   165/251 1   1  
 Female 348 (45.5) 14.78 (3.74)   117/231 0.77 (0.57–1.04) 0.085 0.77 (0.54–1.10) 0.150
Age (years old)    0.001**      
 25–34 (R) 275 (36.0) 14.77 (3.79)   95/180 1   1  
 35–44 232 (30.4) 15.64 (3.33)   104/128 1.54 (1.08–2.20) 0.018* 1.68 (1.14–2.46) 0.008**
 45–54 162 (21.2) 14.89 (3.98)   59/103 1.09 (0.72–1.63) 0.692 1.22 (0.78–1.90) 0.392
 55 and above 95 (12.4) 13.81 (3.94)   24/71 0.64 (0.38–1.08) 0.096 0.74 (0.38–1.42) 0.359
Ethnicity    0.002**      
 Indian (R) 125 (16.4) 14.05 (4.03)   34/91 1   1  
 Malay 453 (59.3) 15.32 (3.52)   185/268 1.85 (1.19–2.86) 0.006** 1.68 (1.07–2.65) 0.026*
 Chinese 182 (23.8) 14.56 (4.01)   61/121 1.35 (0.82–2.22) 0.240 1.17 (0.69–1.98) 0.573
 Others 4 (0.5) 16.50 (1.73)   2/2 2.68 (0.36–19.76) 0.334 3.69 (0.48–28.54) 0.211
Marital status    0.247      
 Single (R) 147 (19.2) 14.48 (4.12)   49/98 1    
 Married 600 (78.5) 15.05 (3.67)   225/375 1.20 (0.82–1.76) 0.348
 Widowed and divorced 17 (2.2) 15.18 (3.19)   8/9 1.78 (0.65–4.89) 0.265   
Employment status    0.041*      
 Public sectors (R) 101 (13.2) 16.08 (3.00)   45/56 1   1  
 Private sectors 222 (29.1) 14.91 (3.89)   85/137 0.77 (0.48–1.24) 0.288 0.92 (0.56–1.53) 0.752
 Self-employment 184 (24.1) 14.63 (3.93)   67/117 0.71 (0.44–1.17) 0.179 0.88 (0.51–1.50) 0.633
 Student 27 (3.5) 14.67 (3.50)   9/18 0.62 (0.26–1.52) 0.297 0.67 (0.26–1.72) 0.399
 Retired 54 (7.1) 14.17 (4.01)   18/36 0.62 (0.31–1.24) 0.177 1.11 (0.49–2.51) 0.803
 Unemployed 156 (20.4) 14.90 (3.62)   51/105 0.60 (0.36–1.01) 0.056 1.00 (0.55–1.81) 0.995
 Others 20 (2.6) 15.10 (3.87)   7/13 0.67 (0.25–1.82) 0.432 1.13 (0.39–3.29) 0.828
Educational attainment    < 0.001**      
 Illiterate or primary school (R) 51 (6.7) 12.45 (4.87)   10/41 1   1  
 Secondary education 361 (47.3) 14.83 (3.43)   120/241 2.04 (0.99–4.22) 0.054 1.60 (0.75–3.45) 0.228
 Diploma/certificate 193 (25.3) 15.24 (3.80)   77/116 2.72 (1.29–5.76) 0.009** 1.76 (0.77–4.02) 0.180
 Degree holder 131 (17.1) 15.37 (3.89)   60/71 3.47 (1.60–7.50) 0.002** 2.28 (0.95–5.44) 0.064
 Postgraduate 28 (3.7) 16.75 (2.27)   15/13 4.73 (1.72–13.05) 0.003** 3.20 (1.06–9.62) 0.038*
Family income (RM)    0.002**      
  ≤ 2000 (R) 183 (24.0) 14.08 (4.06)   51/132 1   1  
 2001–3000 178 (23.3) 14.79 (3.53)   56/122 1.19 (0.76–1.87) 0.455 1.02 (0.63–1.63) 0.949
 3001–4000 125 (16.4) 15.31 (2.88)   45/80 1.46 (0.89–2.37) 0.131 1.22 (0.73–2.04) 0.448
 4001–5000 88 (11.5) 15.25 (3.64)   37/51 1.88 (1.10–3.20) 0.020* 1.63 (0.92–2.90) 0.093
  > 5000 190 (24.9) 15.52 (4.07)   93/97 2.48 (1.61–3.82) < 0.001** 1.87 (1.15–3.06) 0.012*
  1. *Significance at 0.05
  2. **Significance at 0.01
  3. aAnalysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
  4. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, R reference group, RM Ringgit Malaysia, SD standard deviation