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Table 3 Insecticide residues at baseline swabbed from five different kitchen surfaces

From: Exposure risks and ineffectiveness of total release foggers (TRFs) used for cockroach control in residential settings

    Detection frequency (%)a ng/cm2
  Insecticide N MDLb Meanc SEMd Median Max GMe GSDf
0.5 m Floor Fipronil 21 0 1.077 <MDL <MDL
PBOg 21 100 0.192 3.655 0.959 2.021 17.025 2.018 32.455
Tetramethrin 21 10 0.133 <MDL 3.517
Permethrin 21 90 0.211 3.001 0.735 1.253 10.939 1.609 33.272
Cypermethrin 21 86 0.625 10.866 2.496 7.165 47.742 6.290 33.816
1.0 m Floor Fipronil 22 0 1.077 <MDL <MDL
PBO 22 100 0.192 3.214 0.693 2.518 12.292 1.959 29.281
Tetramethrin 22 18 0.133 <MDL 25.694
Permethrin 22 95 0.211 2.840 0.731 1.628 15.629 1.683 29.225
Cypermethrin 22 95 0.625 10.559 1.559 8.950 24.866 7.945 24.013
Counter Fipronil 22 0 1.077 <MDL <MDL
PBO 22 77 0.192 0.749 0.133 0.666 2.746 0.588 21.730
Tetramethrin 22 14 0.133 <MDL 18.458
Permethrin 22 95 0.211 0.807 0.182 0.497 3.529 0.603 20.309
Cypermethrin 22 82 0.625 18.726 7.085 5.132 148.070 5.979 49.307
Cabinet Fipronil 21 0 1.077 <MDL <MDL
PBO 21 71 0.192 19.587 17.007 1.170 359.082 1.186 68.703
Tetramethrin 21 38 0.133 <MDL 232.830
Permethrin 21 90 0.211 11.737 3.906 1.645 65.268 2.786 65.997
Cypermethrin 21 67 0.625 28.370 9.804 6.146 150.993 6.138 76.229
Wall Fipronil 22 0 1.077 <MDL <MDL
PBO 22 95 0.192 18.750 11.500 1.562 253.616 2.717 61.764
Tetramethrin 22 36 0.133 <MDL 190.180
Permethrin 22 86 0.211 36.059 26.211 2.075 576.275 3.089 72.837
Cypermethrin 22 64 0.625 24.946 8.328 5.833 133.071 5.910 72.920
  1. apercentage of samples with residue quantities above the MDL
  2. bMDL Method Detection Limit
  3. cMeans were only calculated for those pesticides with > 40% detection frequency
  4. dSEM Standard Error of the Mean
  5. eGM Geometric Mean
  6. fGSD Geometric Standard Deviation
  7. gPBO Piperonyl butoxide