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Table 5 Physical, cognitive, PAE, and health features by diagnostic outcome

From: Prevalence and characteristics of adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in corrections: a Canadian case ascertainment study

  FASD Deferred Not Diagnosed
Four-Digit Code [n, (%)] 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
 Growth 14 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (91) 1 (9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 53 (69) 1 (2) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Face 12 (86) 2 (14) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6 (54) 5 (46) 0 (0) 0 (0) 48 (87) 6 (11) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 CNS 0 (0) 0 (0) 14 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (9) 10 (91) 0 (0) 5 (9) 43 (78) 7 (13) 0 (0)
 PAE 0 (0) 0 (0) 12 (86) 2 (14) 1 (9) 10 (91) 0 (0) 0 (0) 19 (35) 30 (55) 5 (9) 1 (2)
Medical findings
 Height (cm) M (SD) 176.5 (4.7) 175.4 (6.9) 174.7 (8.3)
 Weight (kg) M (SD) 87.5 (15.4) 93.8 (20.1) 84.6 (18.3)
 BMI n (%) obese 4 (29) 5.0 (46) 13.0 (24)
 Occipital Circ. (cm) M (SD) 56.9 (1.9) 57.1 (1.6) 57.0 (2.0)
 Palpebral fissure length (mm) M (SD) [M z-score (SD)] 29.0 (1.8) [.4 (1.2)] 28.3 (2.2) [−.1 (1.5)] 28.7 (2.2) [.2 (1.5)]
 Intercanthal distance (mm) M (SD) [z-score] 33.6 (3.3) [1.1 (1.1)] 35.0 (3.1) [1.5 (1.3)] 33.3 (3.4) [.8 (1.4)]
 Smooth philtrum % Rank 4/5  n (%) 2 (14) 1 (9) 2 (4)
 Thin vermillion border M (SD) [n (%) Rank 4/5] 53.7 (16.7) [2 (14)] 67.0 (23.0) [4 (36)] 59.6 (14.2) [5 (9)]
 Ear anomalies n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (9)
 Palate anomalies n (%) 3 (21) 4 (36) 5 (9)
 Poor dentition n (%) 5 (38) 5 (46) 14 (26)
 Spine anomaly n (%) 2 (15) 1 (9) 3 (6)
 Current medications n (%) 6 (43) 5 (46) 28 (51)
 Past suicide attempt n (%) 6 (43) 5 (46) 22 (40)
 Previous Head Injury n (%) 11 (79) 8 (73) 30 (55)
Cognitive findings
 Cognition n (%) sign. Imp. 11 (79) 9 (82) 14 (26)
  IQ M (SD)a 65.4 (5.4) 68.5 (4.7) 83.1 (12.3)
  IQ < 70 n (%)a 10 (77) 7 (64) 10 (19)
 Attention n (%) sign. Imp. 6 (43) 5 (50) 12 (13)
 Academics 6 (43) 4 (36) 1 (2)
 Memory 6 (43) 4 (36) 6 (11)
 Executive function 10 (71) 3 (27) 3 (6)
 Adaptive function 14 (100) 11 (100) 50 (91)
# domains sign. Imp. /6 M (SD) 3.8 (.2) 3.3 (.3) 1.6 (.1)
  1. N = 80. CNS Central Nervous System, PAE Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. aN = 77 as raw IQ scores were not available for three participants who had completed psychological testing elsewhere in the last year