Skip to main content

Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes across intervention and control arms and intervention effects on changes from baseline to follow-up

From: Sexual violence among adolescent girls and young women in Malawi: a cluster-randomized controlled implementation trial of empowerment self-defense training

  Baseline Follow-up Difference Baseline to Follow-up Intervention Effect
  Intervention Control   Intervention Control   Intervention Control
  % (95% CI)
(rate) (95% CI)
p-valuea % (95% CI)
(rate) (95% CI)
p-valuea RR
(95% CI)
p-valueb RR
(95% CI)
p-valueb p-valuec
All Schools
Primary outcomes
 Past year sexual violence prevalence 15.2%
(12.8–18.1)
13.8%
(11.6–16.3)
0.41 9.2%
(7.7–11.0)
14.5%
(12.0–17.6)
0.001 0.59
(0.49–0.72)
< 0.001 1.04
(0.86–1.26)
0.70 < 0.001
 School incident rated (19.6)
(16.1–23.9)
(19.3)
(15.7–23.8)
0.92 (16.3)
(13.3–20.0)
(24.0)
(19.5–29.4)
0.01 0.82
(0.67–1.00)
0.05 1.22
(0.95–1.57)
0.12 0.01
Intermediate outcomes
 High confidence 41.2%
(35.7–47.6)
26.2%
(22.8–30.2)
< 0.001 55.0%
(50.1–60.3)
33.2%
(28.9–38.2)
< 0.001 1.33
(1.17–1.50)
< 0.001 1.26
(1.06–1.49)
0.01 0.63
 Correct knowledge 15.0%
(12.0–18.8)
7.0%
(5.3–9.2)
< 0.001 50.4%
(45.6–55.7)
8.9%
(6.8–11.8)
< 0.001 3.33
(2.76–4.02)
< 0.001 1.27
(0.95–1.70)
0.11 < 0.001
 Sexual violence disclosuree 73.0%
(67.4–79.1)
68.2%
(63.4–73.2)
0.21 83.7%
(78.4–89.3)
74.8%
(70.8–79.1)
0.01 1.14
(1.04–1.26)
0.007 1.10
(1.01–1.19)
0.02 0.50
Primary School
 Past year sexual violence prevalence 13.0%
(10.5–16.0)
12.1%
(10.5–14.1)
0.62 7.5%
(6.1–9.3)
11.8%
(9.9–14.1)
0.001 0.58
(0.45–0.74)
< 0.001 0.97
(0.78–1.20)
0.78 0.002
 School incident rated (15.3)
(12.3–19.0)
(16.9)
(13.9–20.6)
0.50 (13.6)
(10.7–17.4)
(20.2)
(16.2–25.4)
0.02 0.88
(0.71–1.11)
.29 1.20
(0.88–1.62)
0.25 0.12
 High confidence 37.1%
(31.4–43.8)
23.5%
(19.9–27.8)
< 0.001 50.9%
(45.5–57.0)
29.2%
(25.1–34.1)
< 0.001 1.37
(1.18–1.59)
< 0.001 1.24
(1.00–1.54)
0.05 0.46
 Correct knowledge 11.6%
(8.9–15.1)
5.3%
(3.9–7.2)
< 0.001 45.7%
(40.6–51.5)
5.8%
(4.2–8.0)
< 0.001 3.97
(3.15–5.00)
< 0.001 1.09
(0.72–1.65)
0.68 < 0.001
 Sexual violence disclosuree 74.0%
(67.2–81.6)
69.1%
(64.6–73.8)
0.25 84.7%
(78.3–91.7)
75.4%
(70.2–81.0)
0.03 1.14
(1.01–1.28)
0.03 1.09
(1.00–1.19)
0.04 0.58
Secondary School
 Past year sexual violence prevalence 22.7%
(17.5–29.4)
20.1%
(13.3–30.3)
0.62 15.1%
(11.6–19.8)
23.1%
(16.5–32.4)
0.06 0.70
(0.54–0.91)
0.01 1.13
(0.78–1.67)
0.51 0.04
 School incident rated (33.9)
(24.7–46.6)
(28.8)
(17.7–46.9)
0.59 (26.2)
(18.8–36.5)
(35.8)
(25.4–50.3)
0.20 0.82
(0.56–1.19)
0.29 1.23
(0.78–1.94)
0.38 0.18
 High confidence 54.8%
(43.1–69.7)
36.9%
(30.6–44.5)
0.01 69.9%
(63.5–77.0)
46.0%
(36.6–57.8)
0.001 1.30
(1.01–1.66)
0.04 1.24
(0.96–1.61)
0.10 0.82
 Correct knowledge 26.4%
(19.8–35.3)
13.5%
(9.2–19.8)
0.01 67.8
(61.9–74.3)
18.9%
(13.7–26.0)
< 0.001 2.57
(1.91–3.45)
< 0.001 1.40
(0.93–2.09)
0.11 0.02
 Sexual violence disclosuree 71.1%
(61.7–81.9)
65.9%
(54.5–79.8)
0.54 81.7%
(72.7–91.8)
73.9%
(67.2–81.3)
0.19 1.13
(0.93–1.38)
0.22 1.12
(0.92–1.36)
0.25 0.94
  1. aBetween-arm difference within time point; b Between-time point within arm ratio; c Between-arm between-time point ratio of ratios; d Per 1000 person-months; eAmong those affected (past year); boldface illustrates statistical significance at p < 0.05