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Table 4 Percentage compliance for hand-hygiene in newborn care units by type, level and load of facility

From: Hand hygiene in hospitals: an observational study in hospitals from two southern states of India

  TOTAL COMPLIANCE % [95%CI] Type Level Load1
Private % [95%CI] Public % [95% CI] P value Secondary % [95% CI] Tertiary % [95% CI] P value Low load % [95% CI] Medium load % [95% CI] high load % [95% CI] P value
N = 3661 N = 1201 N = 2460 N = 1838 N = 1823 N = 2069 N = 1108 N = 309
TOTAL COMPLIANCE % 23 [15–32] 44 [33–56] 12 [6–26] < 0.001 12 [4–30] 33 [23–46] 0.037 28 [18–41] 14 [5–31] 24 [8–53] 0.246
Without any invasive procedure2 n = 1556 n = 470 n = 1086   n = 801 n = 755   n = 660 n = 698 n = 170  
Overall compliance 21 [12–32] 45 [26–65] 10 [4–21] 0.001 7 [3–18] 35 [19–54] 0.002 25 [13–42] 13 [4–31] 28 [8–62] 0.367
 Hand wash prior to contact 44 [31–59] 66 [37–87] 35.0 [21–51] 0.059 24 [13–38] 66 [48–81] 0.001 46 [26–68] 36 [19–59] 64 [56–72] 0.279
 Hand wash after contact 39 [28–51] 58 [46–70] 30 [18–45] 0.005 24 [12–42] 54 [40–67] 0.009 46 [35–56] 25 [12–46] 58 [33–80] 0.361
Contact with blood, body fluids and invasive procedures n = 1476 n = 454 n = 1022   n = 730 n = 746   n = 945 n = 300 n = 105  
Overall compliance 14 [8–24] 37 [24–53] 4 [2–9] < 0.001 2 [1–5] 26 [15–41] < 0.001 14 [7–27] 16 [4–45] 23 [10–44] 0.739
 Hand wash prior to contact 37 [25–52] 65 [44–82] 25 [14–41] 0.002 22 [9–45] 52 [35–70] 0.036 42 [26–59] 28 [10–55] 49 [32–66] 0.393
 Hand wash after contact 39 [29–50] 65 [50–78] 27 [18–39] < 0.001 21 [11–35] 57 [42–70] < 0.001 40 [29–53] 31 [14–55] 64 [33–86] 0.265
Glove usage 20 [13–31] 45 [29–62] 10 [5–17] < 0.001 6 [3–10] 35 [22–51] < 0.001 19 [10–32] 25 [9–52] 45 [38–33] 0.192
Environment contact n = 629 n = 277 n = 352   n = 307 n = 322   n = 464 n = 110 n = 34  
Overall compliance 48 [27–69] 53 [31–75] 44 [14–78] 0.669 48 [16–82] 48 [26–70] 0.009 61 [38–79] 13 [5–26] 9 [2–28] < 0.001
 Hand wash prior to contact 62 [42–79] 75 [51–89] 53 [21–82] 0.278 57 [23–86] 67 [44–85] 0.642 76 [56–89] 20 [11–34] 26 [15–42] < 0.001
 Hand wash after contact 58 [38–75] 60 [37–79] 56 [26–82] 0.853 57 [24–85] 59 [38–77] 0.852 68 [46–84] 30 [13–55] 26 [13–47] 0.011
  1. N is the total number of observations in each group
  2. 1 One hospital did not permit for collection of data on the number of admissions for the last three months
  3. 2 Assuming that a) Observers were aware of the fact that gloves are required when a contact with blood, body fluids or for some invasive procedure is made. b) They appropriately ticked the options
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