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Table 3 Separate multivariate linear regression models estimating the association between medication-related financial burden and self-reported and medication-refill adherence, adjusting for covariates

From: Impact of financial burden, resulting from prescription co-payments, on antihypertensive medication adherence in an older publically insured population

  Model 1 - MMAS-8 Model 2 - PDC
β 95% CI p β 95% CI p
Financial Burden −0.29 −0.48 - -0.11 0.002 −2.76 −5.65 - 0.14 0.062
Age − 0.15 − 0.46 - 0.16 0.341 1.28 −1.74 - 4.31 0.401
Male − 0.19 − 0.36 - -0.03 0.019 − 0.68 −3.14 - 1.78 0.585
Education
 Secondary −0.06 − 0.23 - 0.12 0.513 −1.02 −3.70 - 1.65 0.449
 Third-Level 0.02 −0.22 - 0.26 0.872 −2.94 −7.38 - 1.50 0.191
Marital Status
 Single/Divorced/Widow −0.07 − 0.25 - 0.11 0.421 0.17 −1.86 - 2.20 0.866
 Private Health Insurance 0.01 −0.15 - 0.17 0.896 1.42 −0.79 - 3.64 0.205
 Current Smoker −0.25 −0.56 - 0.07 0.123 −1.84 −6.48 - 2.80 0.432
 Heart Attack −0.18 −0.44 - 0.08 0.169 1.06 −1.99 - 4.11 0.492
 Angina 0.09 −0.19 - 0.37 0.532 0.06 −2.12 - 2.24 0.958
 Stroke 0.15 −0.33 - 0.64 0.530 −0.89 −7.50 - 5.71 0.789
 No. of comorbidities −0.05 −0.12 - 0.01 0.123 0.07 −0.57 - 0.72 0.829
 No. of regular medicines 0.04 0.01–0.07 0.007 0.53 0.17–0.89 0.005
 Use of MDUs −0.32 −0.63 - -0.01 0.041 −0.14 −2.97 - 2.68 0.920
 AHT Dosing Frequency 0.07 −0.09 - 0.23 0.397 −0.68 −3.20 - 1.84 0.594
 AHT WHO-DDD 0.02 −0.03 - 0.06 0.451 0.01 −0.45 - 0.47 0.975
 Angiotensin acting agents −0.01 −0.24 - 0.22 0.955 −0.45 −3.46 - 2.55 0.764
 Alpha-blockers −0.17 −0.60 - 0.25 0.418 −0.40 −4.04 - 3.24 0.828
 Beta-blockers −0.07 −0.26 - 0.12 0.451 1.13 −0.97 - 3.23 0.287
 Calcium Channel Blockers −0.01 −0.18 - 0.15 0.868 0.52 −1.80 - 2.84 0.657
 Diuretics 0.01 −0.16 - 0.17 0.945 −0.98 −3.25 - 1.30 0.396
 BMQ-Specific Concerns −0.12 −0.25 - 0.005 0.059 −0.72 −2.38 - 0.93 0.388
 BMQ-Specific Necessity 0.14 0.021–0.27 0.022 −0.05 −1.38 - 1.27 0.936
  1. AHT = antihypertensive, BMQ = beliefs about medication questionnaire, MDU = multi-dose units. Standard errors were adjusted using the Sandwich-Estimator due to potential clustering effect at the pharmacy level. Model 1 (n = 653) and Model 2 (n = 481); n is smaller due to missing data across covariates
  2. Permission to use the MMAS scales is required. Reproduction and distribution of the MMAS is protected by US copyright laws. A license agreement to use the scale is available from: Donald E. Morisky, ScD, ScM, MSPH, Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA School of Public Health, 650 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095–1772, dmorisky@gmail.com.