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Table 2 Comparison of products: (1) User observations

From: Preventing neonatal sepsis in rural Uganda: a cross-over study comparing the tolerance and acceptability of three alcohol-based hand rub formulations

Characteristic Product; mean (s.d.) [range] Differences (95% CIs)   
A (Plain) B (Perfumed) C (Bitterant) A vs. B A vs. C B vs. C   
Time since enrolment (days) 7 (0) [7: 7] 14 (0) [14: 14] 21 (0) [21: 21] 0 0 0   
Total amount of product used (ml) 64 (27) [5: 100] 83 (17) [25: 100] 91 (11) [50:100] 19 (10: 28)* 27 (18: 35)* 8 (2: 14)*   
For how many days did you use product? 5.1 (0.5) [3: 7] 5.0 (0.3) [4: 6] 5.1 (0.4) [4: 7] − 0.1 (− 0.2: 0.1) 0 (− 0.2: 0.2) − 0.1 (− 0.1: 0.2)   
Study has changed hand practice. 42 (100)** 43 (100) 43 (100) 0 0 0   
Number of times hand rub was used at last 10 times:  
 when breastfeeding your baby 7.1 (2.4) [3: 10] 7.6 (2.2) [3: 10] 7.8 (1.9) [4: 10] 0.5 (− 0.3: 1.3) 0.7 (0.0: 1.4)* 0.2 (− 0.5: 0.9)   
 when changing your baby’s diaper 6.7 (2.7) [1: 10] 7.0 (2.4) [1: 10] 6.7 (2.5) [2: 10] 0.3 (− 0.7: 1.3) −0.1 (− 0.9: 0.8) −0.4 (− 1.2: 0.4)   
 before friend/family handled your baby 4.7 (2.9) [0: 10] 5.1 (2.7) [0: 10] 5.8 (2.8) [0: 10] 0.4 (− 0.5: 1.3) 1.1 (0.1: 2.1)* 0.7 (− 0.4: 1.7)   
 before you handled your baby 6.1 (2.9) [1: 10] 7.5 (2.5) [2: 10] 7.3 (2.3) [2: 10] 1.5 (0.3: 2.6)* 1.2 (0.2: 2.2)* − 0.3 (− 1.1: 0.5)   
 After you went for a “short call” or to urinate 5.3 (2.8) [1: 10] 5.5 (2.6) [2: 10] 6.1 (2.7) [2: 10] 0.3 (− 0.5: 1.1) 0.9 (− 0.1: 1.8) 0.6 (− 0.4: 1.6)   
 After you went for a “long call” or to defeacate 4.5 (2.6) [1: 10] 5.6 (2.9) [1: 10] 5.3 (2.7) [1: 10] 1.1 (0.2: 2.0)* 0.8 (− 0.1: 1.7) − 0.3 (− 1.4: 0.8)   
Opinion of test product for hand hygiene:  
 colour (1 = unpleasant, 7 = pleasant) 6.4 (1.0) [2: 7] 6.4 (0.9) [2: 7] 6.5 (0.8) [4: 7] 0.1 (− 0.2: 0.3) 0.1 (− 0.2: 0.4) 0.0 (− 0.3: 0.3)   
 smell (1 = unpleasant, 7 = pleasant) 5.6 (1.6) [1: 7] 5.9 (1.3) [2: 7] 5.1 (2.0) [1: 7] 0.3 (− 0.3: 0.9) − 0.6 (− 1.3: 0.2) − 0.9 (− 1.5: − 0.2)*   
 texture (1 = very sticky; 7 = not sticky at all) 6.1 (1.2) [1: 7] 6.3 (1.0) [2: 7] 6.0 (1.4) [1: 7] 0.2 (− 0.2: 0.6) −0.1 (− 0.6: 0.5) −0.3 (− 0.8: 0.3)   
 irritation (1 = very irritating; 7 = not irritating) 6.0 (1.3) [2: 7] 6.1 (1.3) [3: 7] 6.2 (1.3) [1: 7] 0.1 (− 0.5: 0.6) 0.2 (− 0.3: 0.8) 0.2 (− 0.4: 0.7)   
 drying effect (1 = very much; 7 = not at all) 2.8 (2.0) [1: 7] 3.3 (2.3) [1: 7] 2.9 (2.4) [1: 7] 0.5 (− 0.4: 1.4) 0.1 (− 0.7: 1.0) −0.3 (− 1.3: 0.6)   
 ease of use (1 = very difficult; 7 = very easy) 6.5 (1.0) [3: 7] 6.7 (0.6) [5: 7] 6.6 (1.0) [1: 7] 0.2 (− 0.1: 0.5) 0.1 (− 0.3: 0.5) −0.1 (− 0.4: 0.2)   
 speed of drying (1 = very slow; 7 = very fast) 6.5 (0.6) [5: 7] 6.5 (0.8) [3: 7] 6.7 (0.7) [3: 7] 0.0 (− 0.2: 0.2) 0.2 (0.0: 0.5) 0.2 (− 0.1: 0.5)   
 application (1 = very unpleasant; 7 = very pleasant) 6.4 (0.9) [4: 7] 6.6 (0.6) [5: 7] 6.7 (0.5) [5: 7] 0.3 (0.0: 0.6) 0.3 (0.0: 0.6)* 0.1 (− 0.2: 0.3)   
 overall evaluation (1-dissatisfied; 7 = very satisfied) 6.4 (0.9) [3: 7] 6.7 (0.7) [4: 7] 6.2 (1.1) [2: 7] 0.3 (0.0: 0.5)* − 0.2 (− 0.5: 0.1) −0.5 (− 0.8: − 0.2)*   
Do you think hand rub makes it easier to keep your hands clean? (1 = yes, absolutely; 7 = not at all) 1.5 (1.1) [1: 6] 1.3 (0.5) [1: 2] 1.2 (0.5) [1: 3] − 0.2 (− 0.5: 0.1) −0.3 (− 0.6: 0.0)*  0.1 (− 0.3: 0.0)   
Self-assessment of skin on hands  
 appearance (1 = abnormal; 7 = normal) 7.0 (0.2) [6: 7] 7.0 (0.2) [6: 7] 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 0.0 (− 0.1: 0.1) 0.0 (0.0: 0.1) 0.0 (0.0: 0.1)   
 intactness (1 = abnormal; 7 = normal) 7.0 (0.2) [6: 7] 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 0.0 (0.0: 0.1) 0.0 (0.0: 0.1)   
 moisture content (1 = abnormal; 7 = normal) 6.9 (0.4) [5: 7] 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 0.1 (0.0: 0.2) 0.1 (0.0: 0.2)   
 sensation (1 = abnormal; 7 = normal) 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 6.9 (0.3) [5: 7] 7.0 (0.0) [7: 7] 0.0 (− 0.1: 0.0) 0.0 (0.0: 0.1)   
Frequency of ABHR Use and ABHR Bottle preference  
 In first 3 months after childbirth, how often on average do you leave your home compound? never n (%) 1 (2.3) 3 (7.0) 0    
1–5 times n (%) 23 (53.5) 20 (46.5) 17 (39.5)    
6–10 times n (%) 11 (25.6) 9 (20.9) 15 (34.9) p = 0.562 p = 0.051 + p = 0.320
most weeks n (%) 5 (11.6) 7 (16.3) 8 (18.6)    
most days n (%) 3 (7.0) 4 (9.3) 3 (7.0)    
mean score 2.67 2.74 2.93
 Which size of bottle do you prefer? large n (%) 33 (76.7) 34 (79.1) 33 (76.7) p = 1.000 p = 1.000 p = 1.000
small n (%) 10 (23.3) 9 (20.9) 10 (23.3)
  1. **: not recorded for 1 participant
  2. *: p < 0.05
  3. ‡: Average times compound left – Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank sum test; Which size of bottle do you prefer – McNemar test
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