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Table 1 ENID subsample characteristics

From: Impaired growth in rural Gambian infants exposed to aflatoxin: a prospective cohort study

Variable n Mean ± SD
Gender, n (%) 374  
Male   192 (51·3)
Female   182 (48·7)
Ethnicity, n (%) 348  
Fula   30 (8·6)
Jola   11 (3·2)
Mandinka   304 (87·4)
Other   3 (0·9)
Mothers’ education, n (%) 352  
< 1 year formal education   235 (66·8)
> 1 year formal education   117 (33.2)
Birth weight (kg) 335 3·04 ± 0·39
Birth weight categories, n (%) 335  
Low (< 2.5 kg)   25 (7·5)
Normal (2.5–3.9 kg)   307 (91·6)
High (≥4.0 kg)   3 (0·9)
Birth length (cm)   50·2 ± 5·0
LAZ at birth   −0·53 ± 0·98
WAZ at birth   −0·57 ± 0·83
WLZ at birth   −0·65 ± 1·11
LAZ at 2 y of age 343 -1·31 ± 0·97
WAZ at 2 y of age 344 -1·33 ± 0·91
WLZ at 2 years 342 −0·93 ± 0·91
Stunted growth at 2 y of age, n (%) 343 89 (25·9)
Wasting at 2 y of age, n (%) 344 44 (12·9)
Underweight at 2 y of age, n (%) 342 84 (24·4)
Age of introduction of non-breast milk foods, n (%) 374  
0–3 months   62 (16·6)
4–5 months   186 (49·7)
6 months   126 (33·7)
Diarrhoea episodes (first 2 y of life)   4·3 (3·6)
Total morbidity episodes (first 2 y of life)   13·2 (7·1)
Infant supplementation group, n (%) 374  
LNS + MMN   192 (51·3)
LNS only   182 (48·7)
  1. Data are mean ± SD or frequency (percentage). Total morbidity is the combined episodes of diarrhoea, vomiting, rapid breathing, cough and fever in the first 2 years of life. LAZ length-for-age z score, WAZ weight-for-age z score, WLZ weight-for-length z score, MMN multi micronutrient, LNS lipid-based nutritional supplementation