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Table 2 Association between knowledge on VMMC and VMMC status

From: Knowledge on voluntary medical male circumcision in a low uptake setting in northern Uganda

  Male respondents Female respondents
  All (N = 396) Uncircumcised (n = 272) Circumcised (n = 124) p All (N = 50) Sexual partner uncircumcised (n = 34) Sexual partner circumcised (n = 16) p
VMMC reduces a man’s risk of acquiring HIV, n(%)
Accept 362(91.4) 249(91.5) 113(91.1) 0.891 47(94.0) 32(94.1) 5(93.8) 1.000
Fail to accept 34(8.6) 23(8.5) 11(8.9)   3(6.0) 2(5.9) 1(6.3)  
VMMC improves genital hygiene, n(%)
Accept 377(95.2) 257(94.5) 120(96.8) 0.449 49(98.0) 33(97.1) 16(100.0) 1.000
Fail to accept 19(4.8) 15(5.5) 4(3.2)   1(2.0) 1(2.9) 0(0.0)  
VMMC reduces risk of STIs, n(%)
Accept 317(80.0) 215(79.0) 102(82.3) 0.458 35(70.0) 23(67.7) 2(75.0) 0.746
Fail to accept 79(20.0) 57(21.0) 22(22.7)   15(30.0) 11(32.4) 4(25.0)  
VMMC reduces cervical cancer risk for female partner, n(%)
Accept 29(7.3) 22(8.1) 7(5.6) 0.387 7(14.0) 3(8.8) 4(25.0) 0.190
Fail to accept 367(92.7) 250(91.9) 117(94.4)   43(86.0) 31(91.2) 12(75.0)  
VMMC involves removal of the foreskin, n(%)
Accept 389(98.2) 266(97.8) 123(99.2) 0.442 50(100.0) 34(100.0) 6(100.0)
Fail to accept 7(1.8) 6(2.2) 1(0.8)   0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0)  
VMMC differs from traditional circumcision, n(%)
Accept 300(75.8) 198(72.8) 102(82.3) 0.042 25(50.0) 17(50.0) 8(50.0) 1.000
Fail to accept 96(24.2) 74(27.2) 22(17.7)   25(50.0) 17(50.0) 8(50.0)  
An injection is given for pain control before VMMC, n(%)
Accept 378(95.5) 257(94.5) 121(97.6) 0.203 40(80.0) 25(73.5) 15(93.7) 0.138
Fail to accept 18(4.5) 15(5.5) 3(2.4)   10(20.0) 9(26.5) 1(6.3)  
Men normally bleed after VMMC, n(%)
Reject 301(76.0) 196(72.1) 105(84.7) 0.006 36(72.0) 23(67.7) 3(81.3) 0.501
Fail to reject 95(24.0) 76(27.9) 19(15.3)   14(28.0) 11(32.4) 3(18.8)  
Tubes that carry sperm are cut during VMMC, n(%)
Reject 360(90.9) 45(90.1) 115(92.7) 0.392 42(84.0) 7(79.4) 15(93.7) 0.409
Fail to reject 36(9.1) 27(9.9) 9(7.3)   8(16.0) 7(20.6) 1(6.3)  
VMMC can make a man immune to acquiring HIV, n(%)
Reject 359(90.7) 48(91.2) 111(89.5) 0.582 40(80.0) 27(79.4) 13(81.2) 1.000
Fail to reject 37(9.3) 24(8.8) 13(10.5)   10(20.0) 7(20.6) 3(18.8)  
VMMC makes a man a muslim, n(%)
Reject 347(87.6) 234(86.0) 113(91.1) 0.153 43(86.0) 29(85.3) 14(87.5) 1.000
Fail to reject 49(12.4) 38(14.0) 11(8.9)   7(14.0) 5(14.7) 2(12.5)  
VMMC reduces risk of HIV transmission to female partner, n(%)
Reject 97(24.5) 68(25.0) 29(23.4) 0.729 8(16.0) 4(11.8) 4(25.0) 0.249
Fail to reject 299(75.5) 205(75.0) 95(76.6)   42(84.0) 30(88.2) 12(75.0)  
Men usually desire more sexual partners after VMMC, n(%)
Reject 230(58.1) 47(45.0) 83(66.9) 0.016 25(50.0) 5(44.1) 10(62.5) 0.225
Fail to reject 66(41.9) 25(46.0) 41(33.1)   25(50.0) 19(55.9) 6(37.5)  
VMMC reduces sexual performance, n(%)
Reject 284(71.7) 181(66.5) 103(83.1) 0.001 25(50.0) 13(38.2) 12(75.0) 0.032
Fail to reject 12(28.3) 91(33.5) 21(16.9)   25(50.0) 21(61.8) 4(25.0)