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Table 3 Impact of real retail cigarette price increases in 22 Asia- Pacific countries between 1999 and 2015 on cigarette consumption per capita, tax revenue, reduction in no. of smokers and reduction in smoking-attributable deaths

From: Raising cigarette excise tax to reduce consumption in low-and middle-income countries of the Asia-Pacific region:a simulation of the anticipated health and taxation revenues impacts

Countries Annual max and mean increase % in real retail cigarette price Annual max and mean decrease % in per capita cigarette consumption Annual max and mean increase % in cigarette tax revenue Reduction in no. of smokers due to cigarette price increase Max and mean reduction in SADs
Max (%) Mean (%) Max (%) Mean (%) Max (%) Mean (%) Max Mean Max Mean
  Low and lower middle income
GNIUS$999
Cambodia 26.52 6.46 −0.98 −0.24 198.71 48.77 −19,105 − 4654 − 4983 − 1214
Nepal 25.86 10.71 −0.96 − 0.40 156.27 65.09 −47,965 − 19,865 − 12,974 − 5373
Bangladesh 17.11 8.72 −0.63 −0.32 27.24 13.93 −160,793 −81,947 −46,839 −23,871
Myanmar 88.48 20.05 −3.27 −0.74 167.89 39.06 − 316,592 −71,741 −93,553 −21,200
US$1000GNIUS$1999
India 23.28 11.74 −3.40 −1.71 48.03 24.67 −4,028,113 −2,031,359 −1,213,670 −612,049
Laos 21.01 8.85 −3.07 −1.29 262.11 112.45 −49,408 −20,812 −12,382 − 5216
Vietnam 28.55 6.34 −4.17 −0.93 80.02 18.40 −544,700 −120,960 − 166,079 −36,881
Bhutan 27.15 10.17 −3.96 −1.48 − 6202 − 2323 − 1738 − 651
Papua New Guinea 34.56 12.73 −5.05 −1.86 119.16 45.43 −62,714 −23,100 −16,569 − 6103
Solomon Islands 39.13 14.46 −5.71 −2.11 186.95 71.80 − 3915 − 1447 − 1001 − 370
US$2000GNIUS$2999
Indonesia 26.77 9.68 −13.06 −4.72 38.65 15.77 −7,242,053 −2,618,718 −2,303,697 −833,014
Mongolia 31.28 8.65 −15.26 −4.22 66.90 21.46 −78,062 −21,587 −21,569 − 5964
Sri Lanka 19.99 10.14 −9.76 −4.95 18.85 10.33 −199,680 −101,288 −71,206 −36,119
Vanuatu 15.38 7.02 −7.51 −3.43 24.51 11.83 − 1921 − 877 − 500 − 228
US$3000GNIUS$3999
Philippines 30.18 7.22 −8.06 −1.93 35.61 9.21 −1,088,283 − 260,351 − 294,598 − 70,477
Samoa 17.29 8.20 −4.62 −2.19 34.35 16.76 − 2048 − 972 − 584 − 277
Tonga 39.64 10.13 −10.58 −2.70 49.68 14.05 − 2558 −654 − 747 − 191
  Upper middle income
US$4000GNIUS$5999
Fiji 24.99 6.58 −15.34 −4.04 52.79 16.30 −10,603 − 2792 − 3342 − 880
Maldives 34.69 9.01 −21.30 −5.53 −13,551 − 3520 − 3366 − 874
Thailand 12.44 5.18 −7.64 −3.18 9.62 4.35 − 693,909 − 288,943 −256,608 −106,851
GNI > US$6000
China 50.96 9.45 −66.45 −12.32 −9.27 15.39 −232,702,235 −43,152,200 −86,472,151 −16,035,358
Malaysia 17.04 7.68 −22.22 −10.01 3.97 3.64 −1,152,312 − 519,352 − 357,217 − 160,999
All 22 Asia Pacific region 29.65 9.51 −11.09 −3.56 63.58 16.20 −248,426,711 −49,349,461 −91,355,371 −17,964,159
  1. SADs: smoking-attributable death. The number of SADs averted was calculated according to Goodchild et al. [14]: Reduction in SADs = Reduction in no. of smokers multiplied by the corresponding mortality adjustment factor