Skip to main content

Table 2 Results of fixed effect regression models of panel data, 22 Asia- Pacific countries (1999–2015)

From: Raising cigarette excise tax to reduce consumption in low-and middle-income countries of the Asia-Pacific region:a simulation of the anticipated health and taxation revenues impacts

Dependent variable: (lnCit)
Countries Low- and lower-middle income Upper-middle-income
Independent variables Group1 (GNIitUS$999)a Group 2 (US$1000GNIitUS$1999)b Group 3 (US$2000 GNIitUS$2999)c Group 4 (US$3000 GNIitUS$3999)d Group 5 (US$4000GNIitUS$5999)e Group 6 (GNIit > US$6000)f
Constant 1.435 (0.203)** 0.919 (0.182)** −0.072 (0.256) 0.831 (0.564) 0.269 (0.341) −0.757 (0.552)
ln Pit −0.037 (0.068) − 0.146 (0.089) − 0.488 (0.289)** − 0.267 (0.238) − 0.614 (0.155)** −1.304 (0.306)**
lnGNIit − 0.161 (0.076)** 0.046 (0.061) 0.408 (0.078)** 0.017 (0.165) 0.327 (0.098)** 0.769 (0.161)**
FCTCit 0.02 (0.012) −0.048 (0.005)** −0.154 (0.027)** − 0.072 (0.023)** −0.045 (0.023)** − 0.103 (0.046)**
Observations 68 102 68 51 51 34
Number of country 4 6 4 3 3 2
Hausman test 60.07** 7.41 34.56** 34.65** 39.08** 20.81**
R2 0.256 0.533 0.919 0.849 0.657 0.387
Wald F test 91.131** 146.45** 23.555** 23.663** 79.333** 21.077**
  1. Ln: natural logarithm; Cit: the annual cigarette consumption per capita in the population aged 15 and older in country i in year t; Pit: the cigarette real retail price per pack of 20 cigarettes in country i in year t; GNIit: per capita gross national income in country i in year t; FCTCit: the dummy variable to describe the state of ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in country i in year t; ** denote statistically significant at 5%; Standard errors are shown in parentheses. Sargan test stands for overidentification test of all instruments. Wald F test stands for weak identification test (Kleibergen-Paap rk F statistic)
  2. aGroup1 countries (GNI per capita of US$999 or less): Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar
  3. bGroup 2 countries (GNI per capita between US$1000 and US$1999): India, Laos, Vietnam, Bhutan, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
  4. cGroup 3 countries (GNI per capita between US$2000 and US$2999): Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu
  5. dGroup 4 countries (GNI per capita between US$3000 and US$3999): Philippines, Samoa, Tonga
  6. eGroup 5 countries (GNI per capita between US$4000 and US$5999): Fiji, Maldives, Thailand
  7. fGroup 6 countries (GNI per capita of US$5999 or more): China, Malaysia