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Table 5 Covariates associated with smokeless tobacco use in Kenya

From: Tobacco use and its determinants in the 2015 Kenya WHO STEPS survey

Smokeless tobacco use Crude Odds Ratioa Adjusted Odds Ratioa
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex
 Female 1.00   1.00  
 Male 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) 0.189 1.51 (0.95, 2.41) 0.079
Age group
 18–29 1.00   1.00  
 30–39 1.11 (0.71, 1.74) 0.635 0.94 (0.47, 1.87) 0.854
 40–49 1.38 (0.85, 2.22) 0.190 2.04 (1.01, 4.11) 0.047
 50–59 2.53 (1.59, 4.01) < 0.001 1.99 (0.98, 4.03) 0.057
 60–69 3.54 (2.11, 5.94) < 0.001 1.1 (0.46, 2.66) 0.826
Education level
 No formal education 1.00   1.00  
 Primary complete 0.13 (0.09, 0.19) < 0.001 0.12 (0.06, 0.22) < 0.001
 Secondary and above 0.09 (0.06, 0.13) < 0.001 0.01 (0, 0.09) < 0.001
Residence
 Urban 1.00   1.00  
 Rural 2.55 (1.73, 3.77) < 0.001 1.38 (0.76, 2.52) 0.292
Occupation
 Unemployed 1.00   1.00  
 Employed 0.47 (0.34, 0.64) < 0.001 0.58 (0.39, 0.88) 0.009
Ever used alcohol
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.49 (1.79, 3.45) < 0.001 2.58 (1.47, 4.54) 0.001
Episodic alcohol drinking
 No alcohol 1.00   1.00  
 Binge drinking 5.19 (3.75, 7.19) < 0.001 4.84 (1.55, 15.15) 0.007
 Non-heavy drinking 1.04 (0.42, 2.55) 0.932 3.52 (0.22, 57.21) 0.377
Wealth band
 Poorest 1.00   1.00  
 Second 0.31 (0.21, 0.48) < 0.001 0.44 (0.22, 0.91) 0.026
 Middle 0.21 (0.13, 0.35) < 0.001 0.56 (0.28, 1.15) 0.117
 Fourth 0.09 (0.04, 0.18) < 0.001 0.04 (0, 0.57) 0.017
 Richest 0.19 (0.11, 0.3) < 0.001 0.16 (0.02, 1.08) 0.060
Marital status
 Not married 1.00   1.00  
 Married 1.73 (1.07, 2.82) 0.026 1.21 (0.67, 2.2) 0.522
 Formerly married 4.96 (2.9, 8.48) < 0.001 2.48 (1.27, 4.83) 0.007
  1. Key: aAll sociodemographic variables (except occupation) were included in final regression models if found to be statistically significant. This was true except for occupation given the original coding of the variable in the survey that was not felt to be meaningful for our study. The variable sex was maintained in the three models, even though it was only found to have a statistically significant relationship with daily tobacco use given the hypothesized importance of the role of sex on tobacco use