Skip to main content

Table 4 Determinants of diabetes, overall and by gender

From: Prevalence and factors associated with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in Kenya: results from a national survey

Indicator Both Males Females  
AOR [95%CI] P-value* AOR [95%CI] P-value* AOR [95%CI] P-value*
Age groups (Ref: [18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29]) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 30–44 2.55 [0.89;7.28] < 0.001 1.32 [0.13;13.47] 0.001 3.92 [1.19;12.88] 0.035
 45–59 6.59 [2.55;17.07]   7.98 [0.85;74.75]   5.23 [1.74;15.74]  
 60–69 5.64 [2.11;15.13]   7.63 [0.99;58.78]   4.01 [1.15;13.96]  
Sex (Ref: Females) 1.00      
 Males 0.76 [0.39;1.49] 0.420     
Hypertensive (Ref: Normal BP) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Raised BP 2.77 [1.53;5.03] 0.001 2.29 [1.00;5.26] 0.051 3.32 [1.70;6.51] 0.001
Waist circumference (Ref: Normal) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Obese 2.02 [0.94;4.37] 0.073 3.40 [0.71;16.39] 0.126 1.39 [0.72;2.68] 0.324
Body mass index (Ref: Normal) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Obese/Overweight 1.64 [0.73;3.70] 0.228 0.79 [0.15;4.04] 0.774 3.16 [1.70;5.88] < 0.001
Insufficient physical activity (Ref: Sufficient) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Insufficient 2.02 [0.86;4.71] 0.104 2.81 [0.74;10.63] 0.127 1.40 [0.60;3.24] 0.436
Sugar intake (Ref: Normal) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 High 1.44 [0.77;2.70] 0.249 1.22 [0.34;4.32] 0.762 1.82 [0.81;4.11] 0.148
Harmful use of alcohol (Ref: No) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.88 [0.84;4.21] 0.126 2.14 [0.79;5.83] 0.134 1.62 [0.30;8.86] 0.577
Fat intake (Ref: Good) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Bad 0.78 [0.45;1.34] 0.361 0.62 [0.24;1.62] 0.328 0.84 [0.49;1.44] 0.529
HDL cholesterol (Ref: Normal) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Low 0.72 [0.40;1.29] 0.265 0.87 [0.39;1.96] 0.740 0.66 [0.37;1.20] 0.173
Total cholesterol (Ref: Normal) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 High 1.47 [0.83;2.60] 0.182 1.55 [0.36;6.60] 0.555 1.89 [0.88;4.03] 0.101
Total (N) 3877   1577   2300  
  1. Place of residence, marital status, education level and wealth status were not significant hence results not presented here
  2. Italicized estimates are significant
  3. *this is the overall p-value for the association between between the dependent and independent variables