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Table 4 CAFES scores, descriptive statistics, and reliability analyses

From: Cafeteria assessment for elementary schools (CAFES): development, reliability testing, and predictive validity analysis

CAFES score
Subscale score
na #
itemsb
CAFES Score (out of 100%) CAFES Score & Reliability Analyses
Meanc SD Range Skewnessd (SE) Kurtosise (SE) KR-21f Mean rg
ROOM SCALE 38 46 (50) 70.10% 10.13% 43.90% - 87.50% − 0.296 (0.383) −0.384 (0.750) 0.80 0.18
Ambient subscale 28 7 (9) 61.84% 19.82% 28.57% - 100.00% −0.082 (0.441) −0.414 (0.858) 0.75 0.22
Appearance subscale 37 8 (9) 75.98% 23.36% 12.50% - 100.00% −0.908 (0.388^) 0.153 (0.759) 0.71 0.23
Windows subscale 35 8 (8) 53.48% 31.71% 0.00% - 100.00% −0.408 (0.398) −1.171 (0.778) 0.81 0.44
Layout subscale 37 8 (8) 91.29% 16.98% 37.50% - 100.00% −2.190 (0.388^) 4.208 (0.759^) 0.83 0.34
Healthy signage subscale 37 1 (6) 86.47% 34.66% 0.00% - 100.00% −2.226 (0.388^) 3.120 (0.759^) n/ah n/a
Kitchen/Serve subscale 40 14 (14) 63.71% 14.67% 25.00% - 85.71% −0.563 (0.374) 0.274 (0.733) 0.71 0.16
TABLE/DISPLAY scale 36 95 (133) 42.64% 6.78% 29.58% - 62.29% 1.014 (0.393^) 1.668 (0.76^) 0.72 0.19
Furniture subscale 36 4 (4) 33.10% 25.70% 0.00% - 75.00% 0.207 (0.393) −1.079 (0.768) 0.52 0.20
Availability subscale 36 56 (77) 40.48% 8.17% 25.93% - 62.50% 0.491 (0.393) 0.236 (0.768) 0.71 0.17
Display subscale 35 8 (10) 39.90% 22.95% 0.00% - 85.71% 0.106 (0.398) −0.794 (0.778) 0.80 0.23
Serving method subscale 34 11 (19) 64.90% 13.47% 36.36% - 90.91% 0.023 (0.403) −0.564 (0.788) 0.64 0.24
Variety subscale 36 16 (19) 40.09% 20.42% 18.75% - 93.33% 0.601 (0.393) −0.522 (0.768) 0.82 0.40
PLATE SCALE 37 3 (4) 51.35% 44.16% 0.00% - 100.00% −0.054 (0.388) −1.804 (0.759^) 0.83 0.66
FOOD SCALE 27 5 (11) 51.73% 20.94% 20.00% - 100.00% 0.082 (0.448) −0.441 (0.872) 0.58 0.24
CAFES TOTAL SCORE 36 149 (198) 50.54% 5.96% 34.57% - 64.34% −0.172 (0.393) .575 (0.768) 0.88 0.18
  1. a School sample size “n” indicates the number of schools that reported at least 50% of CAFES items at the specified scale/subscale
  2. b Number of applicable CAFES items (out of total possible CAFES items) with sufficient variability for reliability testing
  3. c CAFES scores are out of a possible 100%. Each school’s total score was divided by the total # of relevant CAFES items
  4. d A measure of data distribution symmetry. A “^” in the SE column indicates skewed data (not between -SE × 2 and + SE × 2)
  5. e measure of how peaked (+) or flat (−) the data distribution is relative to a normal distribution. A “^” in the SE column indicates a non-normal distribution (not between –SE × 2 and + SE × 2)
  6. fBolded text indicates that the measurement scale/subscale met internal consistency criteria (KR-21 > 0.70)
  7. g Mean inter-item correlation
  8. h Healthy signage data lacked variability for reliability testing of this subscale. Thus, the final CAFES instrument retained six items concerning healthy signage content, quantity, and location based on available literature