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Table 3 Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for GERD in the multivariate ordinal logistic regression (N = 2368)

From: Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its related factors among women of reproductive age: Korea Nurses’ Health Study

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Age (years)
 29≥ Ref Ref Ref
 30–39 1.02(0.83–1.25) 1.02(0.83–1.26) 1.05(0.85–1.30)
 40≤ 1.04(0.76–1.42) 1.06(0.77–1.45) 1.17(0.85–1.61)
Educational status
 3-year college Ref Ref Ref
 4-year college 0.92(0.77–1.09) 0.93(0.77–1.11) .93(0.78–1.12)
 Master’s degree or higher 0.88(0.63–1.23) 0.90(0.65–1.26) .91(0.65–1.27)
Marital status
 Single Ref Ref Ref
 Married 0.99(0.80–1.22) 0.98(0.79–1.22) 1.04(0.84–1.30)
 Divorced or widowed 0.96(0.37–2.50) 1.03(0.39–2.69) 1.05(0.40–2.76)
Annual income (USD)
 20,000≥ Ref Ref Ref
 20,000–29,999 0.69(0.41–1.19) 0.70(0.41–1.21) 0.76(0.44–1.31)
 30,000–39,999 0.70(0.41–1.21) 0.71(0.41–1.22) 0.76(0.44–1.32)
 40,000–49,999 0.63(0.35–1.12) 0.63(0.35–1.12) 0.68(0.38–1.23)
 50,000≤ 0.71(0.38–1.32) 0.72(0.38–1.34) 0.79(0.42–1.48)
Shift work
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 0.92(0.76–1.11) 0.92(0.76–1.11) 0.87(0.72–1.06)
Cigarette smoking
 Non-smoker   Ref Ref
 Former smoker   1.93*(1.12–3.35) 1.89* (1.08–3.28)
 Current smoker   2.31 (0.94–5.66) 2.01(0.82–4.98)
Alcohol consumption
 Non-drinker   Ref Ref
 Below 1/month   1.11(0.84–1.48) 1.11(0.84–1.48)
 2–4/month   1.23(0.91–1.66) 1.25(0.92–1.69)
 Over 2/week   1.11(0.78–1.58) 1.11(0.78–1.58)
BMI
 Normal   Ref Ref
 Underweight   1.38**(1.10–1.73) 1.38**(1.10–1.74)
 Overweight   1.31*(1.06–1.64) 1.32*(1.06–1.64)
Depression
 Minimal    Ref
 Mild    1.33**(1.08–1.63)
 Moderate    1.67**(1.28–2.17)
 Moderately severe    1.97**(1.39–2.80)
 Severe    1.97**(1.19–3.26)
Stress    1.01(0.97–1.05)
Nagelkerke R2 0.003 0.016 0.033
χ2/df 1.597/8 10.229/8 6.802/8
  1. Note: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, *p < .05; **p < .01
  2. Model 1: demographic characteristics (age, sex, educational status, marital status, annual income, shift work); Model 2: demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI); Model 3: demographics, lifestyle factors, and psychological factors (depression, stress)