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Table 3 Pre-treatment characteristics (averages) for the Netherlands and synthetic Netherlands

From: Does household help prevent loneliness among the elderly? An evaluation of a policy reform in the Netherlands

  The Netherlands Synthetic NL
Gender (1-male; 2-female) 1.51 1.52
Marital status (1-married/living together; 0- -not married/separated, divorced/widowed) 0.84 0.83
Being a foreigner (1-yes; 0-no) 0.94 0.92
Received help from others(1-yes; 0-no) 0.24 0.23
Number of children (from 0 up to 17) 2.46 2.19
Type of settlement (1-urban; 0-rural) 0.78 0.73
Age (from 55 up to 104) 66.16 67.32
Household size (from 1up to 10) 1.97 1.98
Depressed (1-yes, 0-no) 0.18 0.21
Mobility (1-limited, 0-no-limitation) 0.45 0.44
Presence of chronic diseases (1-yes, 0-no) 0.71 0.76
RMSPE (root mean square predicted error) 1.11