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Table 2 Difference of health lifestyle among non – health colleges and health colleges

From: Health promoting lifestyle of university students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional assessment

Variable Non – health colleges (N = 671) Health colleges (N = 985) P = value
Never Sometimes Often Routinely Never Sometimes Often Routinely  
Health responsibility
 1. Report any unusual signs or symptoms to a physician or other health professional. 97 (14.5) 382 (56.9) 152 (22.7) 40 (6.0) 96 (9.7) 502 (51.0) 275 (27.9) 112 (11.54) 0.001
 2. Read or watch TV programs about improving health. 216 (32.2) 323 (48.1) 132 (19.7) 0 369 (37.5) 417 (42.3) 183 (18.6) 16 (1.6) 0.001
 3. Question health professionals in order to understand their instructions 114 (17.0) 209 (31.1) 255 (38.0) 93 (13.9) 141 (14.3) 290 (29.4) 335 (34.0) 219 (22.2) 0.001
 4. Get a second opinion when I question my health care provider’s advice. 248 (37.0) 285 (42.5) 103 (15.4) 35 (5.2) 303 (30.8) 404 (41.0) 207 (21.0) 71 (7.2) 0.003
 5. Discuss my health concerns with health professionals. 138 (20.6) 283 (42.2) 184 (27.4) 66 (9.8) 135 (13.7) 386 (39.2) 330 (33.5) 134 (13.6) 0.001
 6. Ask for information from health professionals about how to take good care of myself. 224 (33.4) 308 (45.9) 104 (15.5) 35 (5.2) 286 (29.0) 440 (44.7) 189 (19.2) 70 (7.1) 0.048
 7. Inspect my body at least monthly for physical changes/danger signs. 466 (69.4) 161 (24.0) 25 (3.7) 19 (2.8) 621 (63.0) 234 (23.8) 78 (7.9) 52 (5.3) 0.001
 8. Attend educational programs on personal health care. 383 (57.1) 241 (35.9) 39 (5.8) 8 (1.2) 533 (54.1) 333 (33.8) 92 (9.3) 27 (2.7) 0.008
 9. Seek guidance or counseling when necessary. 119 (17.7) 280 (41.7) 208 (31.0) 64 (9.5) 130 (13.2) 386 (39.2) 320 (32.5) 149 (15.1) 0.001
Physical Activity
 10. Follow a planned exercise program. 225 (33.5) 314 (46.8) 69 (10.3) 63 (9.4) 289 (29.3) 438 (44.5) 136 (13.8) 122 (12.4) 0.019
 11. Exercise vigorously for 20 or more minutes at least three times a week (such as brisk walking, bicycling, aerobic dancing, using a stair climber). 167 (24.9) 267 (39.8) 125 (18.6) 112 (16.7) 252 (25.6) 360 (36.5) 199 (20.2) 174 (17.7) 0.591
 12. Take part in light to moderate physical activity (such as sustained walking 30–40 min 5 or more times a week). 184 (27.4) 276 (41.1) 116 (17.3) 95 (14.2) 289 (29.3) 377 (38.3) 170 (17.3) 149 (15.1) 0.660
 13. Take part in leisure-time (recreational) physical activities (such as swimming, dancing, bicycling). 293 (43.7) 261 (38.9) 91 (13.6) 26 (3.9) 366 (37.2) 407 (41.3) 153 (15.5) 59 (6.0) 0.025
 14. Do stretching exercises at least 3 times per week. 359 (53.5) 211 (31.4) 60 (8.9) 40 (6.0) 483 (49.0) 291 (29.5) 131 (13.3) 80 (8.1) 0.013
 15. Get exercise during usual daily activities (such as walking during lunch, using stairs instead of elevators, parting car away from destination and walking). 145 (21.6) 249 (37.1) 169 (25.2) 108 (16.1) 213 (21.6) 352 (35.7) 249 (25.3) 171 (17.4) 0.899
 16. Check my pulse rate when exercising. 369 (55.0) 6 (0.9) 267 (39.8) 29 (4.3) 484 (49.1) 106 (10.8) 328 (33.3) 67 (6.8) 0.001
 17. Reach my target heart rate when exercising. 361 (53.8) 200 (29.8) 81 (12.1) 29 (4.3) 476 (48.3) 306 (31.1) 134 (13.6) 69 (7.0) 0.043
Eating Habits/Nutrition
 18. Choose a diet low in fat, saturate fat, and cholesterol. 279 (41.6) 262 (39.0) 92 (13.7) 38 (5.7) 361 (36.6) 389 (39.5) 161 (16.3) 74 (7.5) 0.095
 19. Limit use of sugars and food containing sugar (sweets). 199 (29.7) 303 (45.2) 124 (18.5) 45 (6.7) 274 (27.8) 430 (43.7) 207 (21.0) 74 (7.5) 0.509
 20. Eat 6–11 servings of bread, cereal, rice and pasta each day 171 (25.5) 288 (42.9) 138 (20.6) 74 (11.0) 271 (27.5) 385 (39.1) 209 (21.2) 119 (12.1) 0.525
 21. Eat 2–4 servings of fruit each day. 198 (29.5) 365 (54.4) 75 (11.2) 33 (4.9) 299 (30.4) 481 (48.8) 155 (15.7) 50 (5.1) 0.037
 22. Eat 3–5 servings of vegetables each day. 185 (27.6) 334 (49.8) 103 (15.4) 49 (7.3) 294 (29.8) 447 (45.4) 178 (18.1) 66 (6.7) 0.231
 23. Eat 2–3 servings of milk, yogurt or cheese each day. 77 (11.5) 4 (0.6) 436 (65.0) 154 (23.0) 139 (14.1) 143 (14.5) 518 (52.6) 185 (18.8) 0.001
 24. Eat only 2–3 servings from the meat, poultry, fish, dried beans, eggs, and nuts group each day 99 (14.8) 7 (1.0) 454 (67.7) 111 (16.5) 134 (13.6) 141 (14.4) 552 (56.2) 155 (15.8) 0.001
 25. Read labels to identify nutrients, fats, sodium content in packaged food. 230 (34.3) 245 (36.5) 107 (15.9) 89 (13.3) 253 (25.7) 341 (34.6) 203 (20.6) 188 (19.1) 0.001
 26. Eat breakfast. 41 (6.1) 183 (27.3) 150 (22.4) 297 (44.3) 73 (7.4) 277 (28.1) 244 (24.8) 391 (39.7) 0.254
  1. Note: p-value significant at p < 0.05