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Table 3 Characteristics and adjusted odds ratios of inpatient drug detoxification plus rehabilitation vs. detoxificantion-only among inpatient drug-detoxification hospitalizations for patients aged≥12 years: 2003–2011 Nationwide Inpatient Samples

From: National trends and characteristics of inpatient detoxification for drug use disorders in the United States

Drug treatment Drug detoxification-only Drug detoxification plus rehabilitation Drug detoxification plus rehabilitation (1) vs. drug detoxification-only (0)
Sample size, unweighted N (weighted row %) 236,682 (87.45%) 34,721 (12.55%) 242,476b
Weighted column %/Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) p value
Age group, years
 12–17 0.52 (0.34–0.78) 2.22 (1.00–4.86) 2.72 (1.43–5.17) 0.002
 18–25 13.29 (12.12–14.56) 18.56 (16.31–21.04) 1.00  
 26–34 22.33 (21.28–23.41) 23.89 (21.93–25.96) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.015
 35–49 46.06 (44.45–47.68) 37.69 (34.65–40.82) 0.70 (0.62–0.78) < 0.001
 50–64 16.40 (15.28–17.58) 15.12 (13.53–16.86) 0.67 (0.58–0.78) < 0.001
 65+ 1.41 (1.27–1.56) 2.53 (1.78–3.59) 0.75 (0.52–1.08) 0.118
Sex
 Male 65.90 (64.50–67.27) 60.91 (58.66–63.12) 1.00  
 Female 34.00 (32.64–35.39) 38.80 (36.63–41.02) 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.601
Race/Ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic 42.85 (39.13–46.64) 58.15 (50.62–65.32) 1.00  
 Black, non-Hispanic 22.29 (19.08–25.87) 9.96 (7.20–13.62) 0.63 (0.46–0.87) 0.005
 Hispanic 10.41 (8.25–13.06) 4.21 (2.77–6.35) 0.48 (0.33–0.71) < 0.001
 Asian/Pacific-Islander/Native-American 0.66 (0.49–0.87) 0.79 (0.49–1.30) 0.65 (0.38–1.11) 0.113
 Other races, non-Hispanic 4.18 (3.00–5.79) 1.53 (1.10–2.12) 0.50 (0.31–0.81) 0.005
 Unknowna 16.44 (12.98-20.61) 19.11 (12.2–28.65) 0.84 (0.48–1.48) 0.557
Household income
 Lowest quartile 37.30 (34.26–40.45) 30.15 (24.52–36.45) 1.00  
 2nd quartile 20.77 (19.38–22.23) 20.63 (17.90–23.65) 0.90 (0.74–1.09) 0.272
 3rd quartile 18.13 (16.59–19.78) 22.87 (20.26–25.70) 1.11 (0.91–1.35) 0.308
 Highest quartile 16.87 (15.15–18.75) 23.14 (18.76–28.19) 1.09 (0.85–1.41) 0.493
Primary expected payer
 Medicare 10.94 (10.21–11.72) 18.53 (15.54–21.94) 1.07 (0.83–1.36) 0.612
 Medicaid 42.63 (38.50–46.87) 20.74 (14.79–28.29) 0.42 (0.27–0.64) < 0.001
 Private 20.05 (17.90–22.38) 41.38 (35.29–47.74) 1.00  
 Self-pay 19.23 (16.18–22.70) 13.61 (9.58–18.97) 0.40 (0.25–0.64) < 0.001
 Other payers 6.93 (5.51–8.69) 5.57 (4.20–7.34) 0.40 (0.27–0.59) < 0.001
Hospital region
 Northeast 46.28 (40.45–52.20) 28.27 (18.61–40.45) 1.00  
 Midwest 21.01 (16.65–26.15) 16.47 (10.95–24.02) 1.02 (0.49–2.12) 0.968
 South 24.16 (19.99–28.88) 31.05 (22.29–41.40) 1.42 (0.77–2.63) 0.261
 West 8.56 (6.91–10.55) 24.21 (16.53–34.01) 2.52 (1.17–5.47) 0.019
Hospital location
 Rural 5.57 (4.30–7.19) 16.90 (9.88–27.41) 1.00  
 Urban 94.33 (92.71–95.61) 82.75 (72.28–89.82) 0.32 (0.18–0.58) < 0.001
Any-listed alcohol use disorder
 No 57.98 (54.61–61.28) 55.23 (50.92–59.47) 1.00  
 Yes 42.02 (38.72–45.39) 44.77 (40.53–49.08) 1.30 (1.13–1.50) < 0.001
Any-listed opioid use disorder
 No 23.97 (21.85–26.22) 33.56 (29.04–38.40) 1.00  
 Yes 76.03 (73.78–78.15) 66.44 (61.60–70.96) 0.75 (0.63–0.89) 0.001
Any-listed any non-addiction mental health disorderc
 No 53.78 (51.01–56.53) 40.12 (34.69–45.80) 1.00  
 Yes 46.22 (43.47–48.99) 59.88 (54.20–65.31) 1.18 (0.94–1.48) 0.149
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. We reduced the significant level to 0.01 due to a relatively large sample. Boldface: p < 0.01
  3. aRace/ethnicity information were not available in some states in some years, which were coded into unknown category
  4. bHospitalizations with missing values or zero trend weight were excluded. The regression model included all variables listed in the first column and controlled for survey year
  5. cAny mental health disorder included adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit, conduct, and disruptive behavior disorders, impulse control disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, schizophrenia, psychotic, delusional disorders