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Table 3 Adherence behavior by demographics and health factors (N = 1059)

From: Disease-specific health literacy, disease knowledge, and adherence behavior among patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan

  Adherence Behaviors
N(%) Dietary Adherence Body Weight Monitoring Glycemic Monitoring Medication Adherence Exercise Adherence Total Score
Age (years)
 20–29 14(1.3) 3.36(1.39) 2.93(1.39) 2.71(1.82) 2.64(1.39) 2.69(1.65) 14.77(4.87)
 30–39 53(5.0) 2.87(1.42) 2.49(1.54) 2.78(1.46) 3.80(1.16) 2.02(1.59) 13.49(4.61)
 40–49 172(16.3) 3.21(1.42) 2.52(1.33) 2.60(1.66) 3.85(0.99) 2.15(1.67) 14.40(4.55)
 50–59 392(37.1) 3.41(1.42) 2.53(1.35) 2.53(1.66) 3.96(0.89) 2.43(1.67) 14.80(4.19)
 Over 60 426(40.3) 3.50(1.46) 2.60(1.47) 2.68(1.75) 4.04(0.95) 2.84(1.76) 15.64(4.22)
p-value   0.017* 0.771 0.685 < 0.001*** < 0.001*** 0.001**
HbA1C (%)
 Under 7.0 407(38.4) 3.52(1.37) 2.65(1.38) 2.79(1.66) 3.98(0.91) 2.75(1.72) 15.69(4.05)
 Over 7.1 652(61.6) 3.30(1.48) 2.50(1.42) 2.51(1.70) 3.93(1.00) 2.40(1.72) 14.61(4.43)
p-value   0.015* 0.091 0.009** 0.371 0.001** < 0.001***
Gender
 Male 539(50.9) 3.26(1.51) 2.46(1.41) 2.57(1.67) 3.92(0.95) 2.48(1.76) 14.67(4.36)
 Female 520(49.1) 3.51(1.36) 2.67(1.39) 2.67(1.72) 3.98(0.98) 2.60(1.69) 15.41(4.25)
p-value   0.006** 0.013* 0.334 0.298 0.253 0.007**
Educational Attainment
 Primary school or lower 251(23.7) 3.57(1.50) 2.44(1.48) 2.56(1.79) 4.00(1.03) 2.66(1.83) 15.19(4.50)
 Junior High 185(17.5) 3.33(1.40) 2.37(1.28) 2.41(1.58) 3.93(0.87) 2.17(1.76) 14.23(4.00)
 Senior High 364(34.4) 3.31(1.39) 2.60(1.36) 2.65(1.67) 4.03(0.84) 2.48(1.70) 15.08(4.41)
 College or Higher 259(24.5) 3.35(1.48) 2.76(1.44) 2.78(1.69) 3.81(1.12) 2.75(1.58) 15.39(4.21)
p-value   0.146 0.010* 0.148 0.041* 0.003** 0.042*
Patient Caregiver
 Self 611(57.7) 3.28(1.49) 2.48(1.41) 2.43(1.77) 3.97(1.01) 2.65(1.73) 14.78(4.30)
 Others 98(9.3) 3.38(1.54) 2.68(1.47) 2.57(1.72) 3.80(1.12) 2.07(1.82) 14.45(4.44)
 Self + Others 350(33.1) 3.57(1.30) 2.66(1.37) 2.96(1.47) 3.95(0.84) 2.47(1.67) 15.62(4.27)
p-value   0.012* 0.113 < 0.001*** 0.289 0.006** 0.008**
Specialty Visited
 Endocrinology & Metabolism 654(61.9) 3.49(1.40) 2.68(1.43) 2.77(1.67) 3.94(0.97) 2.64(1.70) 15.49(4.24)
 Others 402(38.1) 3.20(1.50) 2.37(1.34) 2.37(1.71) 3.97(0.97) 2.37(1.76) 14.26(4.37)
p-value   0.002** < 0.001*** < 0.001*** 0.698 0.015* < 0.001***
Insulin Use
 Yes 160(15.1) 3.29(1.40) 2.55(1.52) 3.08(1.60) 3.76(1.08) 2.34(1.75) 14.50(4.74)
 No 899(84.9) 3.40(1.45) 2.56(1.38) 2.54(1.69) 3.98(0.94) 2.57(1.72) 15.11(4.25)
p-value   0.357 0.923 < 0.001*** 0.028* 0.113 0.136
Health Care Facility Accreditation Level
 Medical Center 232(21.9) 2.95(1.68) 2.54(1.60) 2.43(1.81) 3.88(1.08) 2.71(1.69) 14.55(4.74)
 Regional Hospital 314(29.7) 3.52(1.26) 2.74(1.33) 2.82(1.58) 3.89(1.03) 2.61(1.74) 15.53(4.11)
 District Hospital 165(15.6) 3.68(1.32) 2.60(1.43) 2.74(1.68) 3.94(0.90) 2.52(1.69) 15.39(4.44)
 Community Clinic 348(32.9) 3.41(1.42) 2.40(1.30) 2.51(1.69) 4.05(0.84) 2.37(1.75) 14.72(4.10)
p-value   < 0.001*** 0.022* 0.025* 0.136 0.110 0.022*
Residential Region
 Northern 466(44.0) 3.09(1.45) 2.60(1.45) 2.45(1.66) 3.96(0.98) 2.28(1.71) 14.38(4.25)
 Central 251(23.7) 4.06(1.19) 2.90(1.35) 2.95(1.73) 4.13(0.78) 3.00(1.58) 16.93(4.24)
 Southern 299(28.2) 3.23(1.46) 2.29(1.30) 2.60(1.65) 3.81(1.05) 2.56(1.77) 14.55(4.08)
 Eastern & Outlying Islands 43(4.1) 3.69(1.26) 2.12(1.40) 2.63(1.80) 3.74(1.00) 2.40(1.92) 14.50(4.11)
p-value   < 0.001*** < 0.001*** 0.002** 0.001** < 0.001*** < 0.001***
  1. Total score = dietary adherence + body weight monitoring + glycemic monitoring + medication adherence + exercise adherence
  2. * p < 0.05,** p < 0.01,*** p < 0.001