Skip to main content

Table 3 Bennet’s kappa analysis of challenges/barriers to active transport to school (Kenya and Nigeria analyzed separately) -parent vs. child report

From: Development and convergent validity of new self-administered questionnaires of active transportation in three African countries: Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria

Item Kenya Nigeria
N Bennett’s Kappa Strength of Agreement N Bennett’s Kappa Strength of Agreement
There are too many hills along the way 1093 0.58 Moderate 919 0.44 Moderate
There are no suitable walking/running or biking paths 1093 0.32 Fair 910 0.35 Fair
The route is boring (nothing interesting to see) 1090 0.47 Moderate 911 0.26 Fair
The route does not have good lighting 1087 0.21 Fair 911 0.21 Fair
There is too much traffic along the route 1092 0.33 Fair 915 0.35 Fair
There are dangerous crossings 1085 0.42 Moderate 916 0.36 Fair
My child gets too hot and sweaty 1084 0.43 Moderate 909 0.31 Fair
No other children walk/run or bike to school 1087 0.31 Fair 897 0.21 Fair
It’s not considered fashionable to walk/run or bike 1087 0.47 Moderate Nil Nil Nil
My child has too many things to carry 1086 0.59 Moderate 906 0.28 Fair
It is easier for me to drive my child 1079 0.39 Fair 893 0.23 Fair
It involves too much planning ahead 1083 0.33 Fair 891 0.21 Fair
It is unsafe because of crime (strangers, gangs, drugs) 1088 0.24 Fair 910 0.28 Fair
My child gets bullied, teased, harassed 1083 0.36 Fair 904 0.26 Fair
There is nowhere to leave a bike safely 1089 0.38 Fair 905 0.06 Slight
There are stray dogs or other dangerous animals 1083 0.48 Moderate 913 0.24 Fair
It is too far 1087 0.43 Moderate 924 0.37 Fair
The route is difficult to walk/run or bike because of garbage, water or bad smells 1092 0.35 Fair 915 0.24 Fair
The route is isolated 1083 0.50 Moderate 913 0.15 Slight
My child has a disability 1088 0.24 Slight 908 0.37 Fair