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Table 3 Adverse events experienced by both groups at baseline and at week 24. Scale: 4 = severe, 3 = Moderate, 2 = Mild, 1 = slight, 0 = absent; aFisher’s exact test

From: Effectiveness and safety of electronic cigarettes among sole and dual user vapers in Kuantan and Pekan, Malaysia: a six-month observational study

Adverse events Groups At baseline At week 24
  Total n (%) Mean P (2-tailed) Total n (%) Mean P (2-tailed)
Dry Mouth Dual user
Sole EC user
82 (55.4)
30 (42.9)
1.229
0.900
0.062 21 (16.5)
09 (14.5)
.2205
.2097
0.904
Sore throat Dual user
Sole EC user
32 (21.6)
9 (12.9)
.3986
.2714
0.262 13 (10.2)
8 (12.9)
.1102
.1290
0.720
Cough Dual user
Sole EC user
34 (23)
8 (11.4)
0.5473
0.1571
< 0.001 31 (24.4)
7 (11.3)
.3858
.1452
0.009
Anxiety Dual user
Sole EC user
0 (0)
1 (1.4)
.0000
.0286
0.321
Stomach disturbances Dual user
Sole EC user
2 (1.4)
0 (0)
.0270
.0000
0.158
Nausea Dual user
Sole EC user
6 (4.7)
2 (3.2)
.0551
.0323
0.535
Vomiting Dual user
Sole EC user
0 (0)
5 (7.1)
0.000
0.1571
0.033 3 (2.4)
2 (3.2)
.0394
.0484
0.830
Headache Dual user
Sole EC user
14 (9.5)
6 (9.2)
.1486
.1286
0.771 5 (3.9)
5 (8.1)
.0551
.0968
0.388
Breathing
Problem
Dual user
Sole EC user
27 (18.8)
2 (2.8)
.3243
0429
< 0.001 24 (18.9)
4 (6.5)
.2598
.0806
0.008
Other (fever, gums bleeding Dual user
Sole EC user
0 (0)
3 (4.3)a
.0000
.0571
0.103 1 (0.8)
2 (3.2)b
.1102
.0806
0.775
  1. aFever cases; bGum bleeding
  2. Independent t-test was applied to compare the mean differences between the groups