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Table 3 Parasites that have been isolated from house flies, including the site of isolation, the frequencies and their distribution

From: A systematic review of human pathogens carried by the housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Parasite genera Species Medical or veterinary importance Geographical occurrence Site of specimen collection Host stage infected Prevalence Lab or field study Site of isolation References
Ascaris A. lumbricoides Medical Worldwide Slaughter houses, dump sites, human habitation, open fields Adult 12.6–14.29% Field External surfaces [61,62,63, 98, 99]
A. suum Veterinary Worldwide piggery Adult 62% Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [54]
Entamoeba E. histolytica Medical Worldwide Slaughter houses, dump sites, human habitation, open fields Adult 35.43–53.57% Field External surfaces [61,62,63]
Hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus Medical Worldwide Slaughter houses, dump sites, human habitation, open fields Adult 8.93% Field External surfaces [61, 62, 64]
Trichuris T. trichiura Medical Worldwide Slaughter houses, dump sites, human habitation, open fields, piggery Adult 12.5–74.0% Field External surfaces [61,62,63,64]
T. suis Medical/veterinary Worldwide Piggery Adult Field/lab External surfaces/internal organs [54]
Strongyloides S. stercoralis Medical Developing countries Slaughter houses, dump sites, human habitation, open fields Adult 10.7% Field External surfaces/internal organs [61]
S. ransomi Veterinary Tropical regions Piggery Adult 21% Field External surfaces [54]
Metastrongylus M. spp Veterinary Worldwide Piggery Adult Field External surfaces/internal organs [54]
Haematopinus H. suis Veterinary Worldwide Piggery Adult Field External surfaces/internal organs [54]
Crytosporidium C. parvum Medical/ Veterinary Worldwide Laboratory experiment Adult/larvae Lab Internal organs [65]
Giardia G. lamblia Medical Developing countries Human habitation, refuse dumps, tomato/vegetable and soft drink shops Adult 23.62% Field External surfaces [3, 63]
Enterobius E. vermicularis Medical Worldwide but more prevalent in developed world Poultry Adult Field External surfaces [3]
Taenia T. spp. Medical/veterinary Worldwide Human habitation, refuse dumps, tomato/vegetable and soft drink shops Adult 15.75% Field External surfaces [63, 64]
Hymenolepis H. nana Medical Worldwide Human habitation, refuse dumps, tomato/vegetable and soft drink shops Adult 5.51% Field Internal organs [63]