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Table 1 Study population characteristics by respiratory illness status and by lack of perceived community safety construct

From: Are perceptions of community safety associated with respiratory illness among a low-income, minority adult population?

Variable   Respiratory Illness Lack of Community Safety
Total Yes No   Yes No  
(n = 792) (n = 205) (n = 587) p-value (n = 376) (n = 416) p-value
n (%) n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Age, mean ± SD 44.4 ± 14.3 46.3 ± 14.8 43.8 ± 14.0 0.03* 44.6 ± 14.1 44.3 ± 14.4 0.77
Gender
 Female 540 (68.2) 138 (67.3) 402 (68.5) 0.78 262 (69.7) 278 (66.8) 0.39
 Male 252 (31.8) 67 (32.7) 185 (31.5)   114 (30.3) 138 (33.2)  
Employment status
 Unemployed 368 (46.5) 89 (43.4) 279 (47.5) 0.31 176 (46.8) 192 (46.2) 0.85
 Employed, student or retired 424 (53.5) 116 (56.6) 308 (52.5)   200 (53.2) 224 (53.8)  
Race/Ethnicity
 Hispanic/Latino 606 (76.5) 140 (68.3) 466 (79.4) <  0.01* 279 (74.2) 327 (78.6) 0.03*
 African-American/Black 85 (10.7) 31 (15.1) 54 (9.2)   37 (9.8) 48 (11.5)  
 White, Asian, Other 101 (12.8) 34 (16.6) 67 (11.4)   60 (16.0) 41 (9.9)  
Education
  ≤ Grade school 225 (28.7) 66 (32.7) 159 (27.4) 0.50 113 (30.5) 112 (27.1) 0.26
 High School 253 (32.3) 59 (29.2) 194 (33.4)   122 (33.0) 131 (31.7)  
 Some college, vocational, business, or trade 232 (29.6) 58 (28.7) 174 (29.9)   108 (29.2) 124 (30.0)  
  ≥ Associates degree 73 (9.3) 19 (9.4) 54 (9.3)   27 (7.3) 46 (11.1)  
Health care insurance
 None 355 (44.8) 73 (35.6) 282 (48.0) <  0.01* 178 (47.3) 177 (42.5) 0.29
 Private, Blue Cross, HMO, military, or other 183 (23.1) 51 (24.9) 132 (22.5)   87 (23.1) 96 (23.1)  
 Medicare/caid/cal 254 (32.1) 81 (39.5) 173 (29.5)   111 (29.5) 143 (34.4)  
Ever regularly smoked cigarettes, cigars, or a pipe
 Current smoker 153 (19.3) 54 (26.3) 99 (16.9) 0.01* 79 (21.0) 74 (17.8) 0.51
 Past smoker 92 (11.6) 20 (9.8) 72 (12.3)   42 (11.2) 50 (12.0)  
 Never smoker 547 (69.1) 131 (63.9) 416 (70.9)   255 (67.8) 292 (70.2)  
As an adult, lived for > 6 mo. with someone who smoked
 Yes, currently 31 (3.9) 12 (5.9) 19 (3.2) 0.07 16 (4.3) 15 (3.6) 0.45
 Yes, in the past 184 (23.2) 55 (26.8) 129 (22.0)   94 (25.0) 90 (21.6)  
 No 577 (72.9) 138 (67.3) 439 (74.8)   266 (707) 311 (74.8)  
Average annual household income
  < $10,000 214 (30.6) 55 (30.9) 159 (30.5) 0.82 111 (32.4) 103 (28.9) 0.11
 $11,000 - $19,000 175 (25.0) 49 (27.5) 126 (24.2)   96 (28.0) 79 (22.2)  
 $20,000 - $29,000 138 (19.7) 31 (17.4) 107 (20.5)   65 (19.0) 73 (20.5)  
 $30,000 - $49,000 125 (17.9) 30 (16.9) 95 (18.2)   53 (15.4) 72 (20.2)  
  > $50,000 47 (6.7) 13 (7.3) 34 (6.5)   18 (5.2) 29 (8.2)  
Marital Status
 Never married/ widowed/divorced 328 (41.5) 106 (51.7) 222 (38.0) <  0.001* 166 (44.4) 162 (38.9) 0.12
 Married/live together 462 (58.5) 99 (48.3) 363 (62.0)   208 (55.6) 254 (61.1)  
People in household
 1–2 people 109 (13.8) 41 (20.0) 68 (11.6) <  0.001* 59 (15.7) 50 (12.1) 0.30
 3–5 people 430 (54.3) 116 (56.6) 314 (53.5)   202 (53.7) 228 (54.8)  
 6 or more people 253 (31.9) 48 (23.4) 205 (34.9)   115 (30.6) 138 (33.1)  
Duration at current residence
 11+ years 213 (26.9) 57 (27.8) 156 (26.6) 0.09 105 (27.9) 108 (26.0) 0.14
 1–10 years 536 (67.7) 143 (69.8) 393 (66.9)   245 (65.2) 291 (69.9)  
  < 1 year 43 (5.4) 5 (2.4) 38 (6.5)   26 (6.9) 17 (4.1)  
Environmental hazard region
 A - closest to SBR 215 (27.1) 50 (24.4) 165 (28.1) 0.35 131 (34.8) 84 (20.2) < 0.0001*
 B - intermediate 289 (36.5) 83 (40.5) 206 (35.1)   136 (36.2) 153 (36.8)  
 C - farthest away 288 (36.4) 72 (35.1) 216 (36.8)   109 (29.0) 179 (43.0)  
  1. *Denotes a statistically significant p-value for chi-square statistic (or t-test for the variable age) at alpha-level ≤ 0.05
  2. % = column percent; SD = standard deviation; n (%) for categorical variables and mean ± SD for continuous variables (i.e. age); SBR = San Bernardino Railyard