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Table 4 Overall direct costs (€) associated with PIA estimated with the different models in the subsample

From: Direct healthcare costs associated with device assessed and self-reported physical activity: results from a cross-sectional population-based study

Variable MVPA (Quartiles); mean and mean difference [95% CI] Light intensity physical activity (Quartiles); mean and mean difference [95% CI] Step counts g; mean and mean difference [95% CI] WHO thresholdh; mean and mean difference [95% CI]
Very high (Ref.) High (β) Low (β) Very low (β) Very high (Ref.) High (β) Low (β) Very low (β) Active (Ref.) Inactive (β) Active (Ref.) Inactive (β)
Model Aa 1276 [841, 1759] − 308 [− 883, 233] 300 [− 363, 992] 986 [15, 1982]** 1361 [806, 2005] 86 [− 656, 788] 37 [− 774, 799] 685 [− 294, 1838] 1309 [846, 1830] 301 [− 331, 851] 1397 [843, 2175] 186 [− 585, 823]
Model Bb 1297 [903, 1790] −304 [− 870, 237] 255 [− 407, 912] 1049 [1, 2278]** 1306 [822, 1834] 181 [− 475, 851] 242 [− 596, 946] 702 [− 242, 1776] 1389 [918, 1955] 239 [− 415, 786] 1498 [901, 2226] 101 [− 684, 704]
Model Cc 877 [556, 1249] − 116 [− 606, 362] 149 [− 465, 861] 889 [− 5, 1870]* 765 [465, 1133] 109 [− 355, 560] 518 [− 119, 1287] 912 [29, 1986]** 976 [592, 1459] 167 [− 413, 689] 911 [528, 1423] 235 [− 394, 772]
Model Dd 1055 [721, 1506] −91 [− 561, 389] 338 [− 274, 949] 1107 [151, 2166]** 1247 [743, 1849] 53 [−684, 719] −35 [− 720, 669] 681 [− 246, 1709] 1118 [764, 1551] 358 [−175, 839] 1060 [682, 1547] 401 [− 172, 923]
Model Ee 1253 [876, 1737] − 292 [− 246, 797] 310 [− 384, 1027] 1080 [74, 2207]** 1387 [848, 2134] −56 [− 797, 755] −5 [− 865, 737] 675 [− 423, 1808] 1331 [904, 1878] 262 [− 354, 878] 1357 [822, 2089] 229 [− 541, 837]
Model Ff 1315 [927, 1797] − 351 [− 833, 220] 262 [− 492, 1010] 966 [13, 2097]** 1511 [912, 2349] −40 [− 987, 694] − 159 [− 932, 591] 462 [− 619, 1486]
  1. The highest level of PA was used as a reference within all four different measures of PA. Therefore, the values in the respective columns (Ref.) represents a mean estimate whereas the values in the other columns (β) represent coefficients
  2. aModel A: adjusted for age, age2, sex, education and equivalence income;
  3. bModel B: adjusted for variables in Model A plus diabetes, asthma, MI, stroke, cancer, smoking status and alcohol consumption;
  4. cModel C: adjusted for variables in Model A & exclusion of participants with prevalent chronic diseases mentioned in Model B (n = 1608);
  5. dModel D: adjusted for variables in Model A & exclusion of participants with problems with walking (n = 2059);
  6. fModel F: adjusted for variables in Model A & MVPA or light intensity physical activity, respectively;
  7. gactive: > 10.000 steps per day, inactive: ≤ 10.000 steps per day;
  8. hactive: ≥ 150 min MVPA per week in ≥10-min bouts, inactive < 150 min MVPA per week in ≥10-min bouts; ** p < 0.05, * trend with p < 0.10