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Table 3 Overall direct costs (€) associated with PIA estimated with the different models in the total sample

From: Direct healthcare costs associated with device assessed and self-reported physical activity: results from a cross-sectional population-based study

Variable Physical activity during sports
High activity (Ref. [95% CI]) Moderate activity (β [95% CI]) Low activity (β [95% CI]) No activity (β [95% CI])
Model Aa 1700 [1423, 1996] 84 [− 346, 459.8] 275 [− 212.6–836.6] 189 [−188–598]
Model Bb 1783 [1527, 2089] 125 [− 260, 509] 206 [−357–730] 6 [−423–391]
Model Cc 1314 [1045, 1604] −66 [− 431, 298] 143 [− 374–698] −167 [− 531–197]
Model Dd 1481 [1225, 1759] 109 [− 225, 437] 189 [− 287–679] 33 [− 365–382]
  1. The highest level of PA was used as a reference within all four different measures of PA. Therefore, the values in the respective columns (Ref.) represent a mean estimate whereas the values in the other columns (β) represent coefficients
  2. aModel A: adjusted for age, age2, sex, education and equivalence income;
  3. bModel B: adjusted for variables in Model A plus diabetes, asthma, MI, stroke, cancer, smoking status and alcohol consumption;
  4. cModel C: adjusted for variables in Model A & exclusion of participants with prevalent chronic diseases mentioned in Model B (n = 1608);
  5. dModel D: adjusted for variables in Model A & exclusion of participants with problems with walking (n = 2059);
  6. ** p < 0.05, * trend with p < 0.10