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Table 3 Relative age differences in scores obtained in the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy based on children’s month of birth

From: Influence of the relative age effect on children’s scores obtained from the Canadian assessment of physical literacy

  Quarter 1
January to March
Quarter 2
April to June
Quarter 3
July to September
Quarter 4
October to December
F-test   
Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI   
LB UB LB UB LB UB LB UB p ƒ2
Boys
 Height (cm)a (n = 4081) 146.2 145.7 146.6 144.6‡ 144.1 144.9 142.9‡† 142.5 143.3 142.3‡† 141.9 142.8 563.86* < 0.001 0.04
 Weight (kg)a (n = 4076) 42.0 41.3 42.6 39.9‡ 39.3 40.5 38.9‡ 38.3 39.5 38.6‡† 37.9 39.3 175.57* < 0.001 0.02
 BMI (kg/m2)a (n = 4059) 19.4 19.1 19.6 18.9‡ 18.6 19.1 18.8‡ 18.6 19.0 18.8‡ 18.5 19.0 35.09* 0.001 0.004
 WC (cm)a (n = 4039) 68.9 68.2 69.5 67.4‡ 66.8 68.0 67.0‡ 66.4 67.6 66.5‡ 65.8 67.2 72.28* < 0.001 0.01
 Physical Competence domain scoreb (n = 4059) 20.6 20.3 20.8 20.1‡ 19.9 20.3 19.8‡ 19.6 20.0 19.6‡† 19.3 19.8 277.04* < 0.001 0.01
 Daily Behaviour domain scoreb (n = 4059) 18.6 18.1 19.1 18.5 18.0 18.9 18.6 18.1 19.0 19.1 18.6 19.0 12.54* 0.26 0.001
 Motivation and Confidence domain scoreb (n = 4059) 12.9 12.7 13.1 12.8 12.6 12.9 12.6 12.5 12.8 12.8 12.6 12.9 5.48* 0.42 0.001
 Knowledge and Understanding domain scorea (n = 4100) 12.2 12.0 12.4 12.0 11.9 12.2 11.7‡† 11.5 11.8 11.6‡† 11.5 11.8 78.49* < 0.001 0.01
 Total CAPL scoreb (n = 4059) 64.2 63.4 64.9 63.3 62.6 64.1 62.7‡ 61.9 63.4 63.1 62.3 63.9 60.4* 0.04 0.002
Girls
 Height (cm)a (n = 4114) 146.5 146.1 147.0 144.6‡ 144.2 145.1 143.7‡† 143.3 144.1 142.2‡† 141.8 142.7 629.71* < 0.001 0.04
 Weight (kg)a (n = 4110) 41.5 40.9 42.2 40.4 39.8 41.0 39.5‡ 39.0 40.1 38.9‡† 38.2 39.6 201.36* < 0.001 0.01
 BMI (kg/m2)a (n = 4092) 19.1 18.9 19.3 19.0 18.8 19.3 18.9 18.6 19.1 19.0 18.7 19.2 32.93* 0.45 0.001
 WC (cm)a (n = 4076) 67.8 67.2 68.4 67.4 66.7 68.0 66.6‡ 66.0 67.1 66.8 66.1 67.6 61.71* 0.03 0.002
 Physical Competence domain scoreb (n = 4092) 19.9 19.7 20.2 19.5‡ 19.3 19.7 19.2‡ 19.0 19.3 18.9‡† 18.7 19.2 276.74* < 0.001 0.01
 Daily Behaviour domain scoreb (n = 4092) 18.5 18.0 18.9 18.2 17.8 18.7 18.0 17.6 18.4 18.5 18.1 19.0 16.08* 0.34 0.001
 Motivation and Confidence domain scoreb (n = 4092) 12.5 12.3 12.6 12.3 12.1 12.4 12.2‡ 12.0 12.3 12.2‡ 12.0 12.3 8.72* 0.036 0.002
 Knowledge and Understanding domain scorea (n = 4133) 12.4 12.2 12.6 12.2 12.0 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.4 11.9‡ 11.8 12.1 72.83* 0.001 0.004
 Total CAPL scoreb (n = 4092) 63.3 62.6 63.9 62.1 61.5 62.1 61.5‡ 60.9 62.1 61.6‡ 60.9 62.3 49.56* 0.001 0.004
  1. An analysis of covariance was conducted controlling for multiple covariates described in each model. The F-test is shown for the overall corrected model (*p < 0.001). The last two columns, the p-value and Cohen’s ƒ2 effect sizes, are presented for the main effect of the relative age by quarters
  2. statistically significant differences between quarter 1 and other quarters
  3. statistically significant differences between quarter 2 and other quarters
  4. acontrolled for site location, age (whole years) and testing month
  5. bcontrolled for BMI z-score, site location, age (whole years) and testing month
  6. CI confidence interval, LB lower bound, UB upper bound, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, CAPL Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy