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Table 2 Demographic, clinical and laboratory data stratified by diabetic retinopathy type

From: Current epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes: a national multicenter study in Brazil

Variables Present Absent p-Value VTDR Non VTDR p-Value
N, (%) 589 (35.8) 1055 (64.2)   198 (12.1) 1446 (87.9)  
Demographic data
 Gender, female, n (%) 343 (58.2) 574 (54.4) 0.1 114 (57.6) 803 (55.5) 0.5
 Age, mean (SD), years 35.77 ± 11.56 26.86 ± 11.11 < 0.001 37.35 ± 11.07 29.05 ± 11.84 < 0.001
 Duration of diabetes, mean (SD), years 20.26 ± 9.18 12.62 ± 8.15 < 0.001 23.28 ± 9.02 14.25 ± 8.77 < 0.001
 Years of formal education, mean (SD), years 11.92 ± 4.22 12.43 ± 3.55 0.01 12.05 ± 4.22 12.27 ± 3.75 0.4
 Economic status, n (%)
  High 14 (2.4) 35 (3.3) 0.3 5 (2.5) 44 (3.0) 0.1
  Medium 261 (44.3) 484 (45.9) 86 (43.4) 659 (45.6)
  Low 289 (49.1) 506 (48.0) 95 (48.0) 700 (48.4)
  Very low 25 (4.2) 30 (2.8) 12 (6.1) 43 (3.0)
Clinical data
 HbA1c mg/dl (%) 9.27 (2.22) 8.86 (2.04) < 0.001 9.10 (2.06) 8.99 (2.12) 0.4
 HbA1c, mean (SD), mmol/mol 77.84 ± 24.27 73.34 ± 22.33 < 0.001 76.03 ± 22.53 74.8 ± 23.22 0.4
 Serum uric acid, mean (SD), mg/dL 5.58 ± 2.09 4.81 ± 1.63 < 0.001 6.09 ± 2.04 4.95 ± 1.77 < 0.001
 Hypertension, yes, n (%) 197 (33.4) 91 (8.6) < 0.001 85 (42.9) 203 (14.1) < 0.001
 Triglycerides, mean (SD), mg/dL 102.99 ± 76.59 121.98 ± 96.30 < 0.001 122.46 ± 88.96 108.07 0.02
 HDL cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 57.84 ± 19.89 56.21 ± 18.63 0.1 54.50 ± 17.53 57.11 ± 19.29 0.56
 LDL cholesterol, mean (SD), md/dL 111.90 ± 43.91 108.31 ± 38.98 0.09 113.37 ± 38.46 110.56 ± 41.28 0.3
 BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 25.09 ± 4.69 23.65 ± 3.81 < 0.001 25.00 ± 4.90 24.05 ± 4.08 0.01
 Macrovascular disease, yes n (%) 39 (6.6) 18 (1.7) < 0.001 13 (6.6) 44 (3.1) 0.01
 Use of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, yes, n (%) 269 (45.7) 168 (16.0) < 0.001 112 (22.6) 325 (56.6) < 0.001
 Current smoker, yes, n (%) 38 (6.5) 48 (4.5) 0.09 14 (7.1) 72 (5.0) 0.2
 Chronic kidney disease, yes, n (%) 159 (27.4) 105 (10.1) < 0.001 83 (42.8) 181 (12.7) < 0.001
  1. The data are presented as numbers (percentages) or means ± SD (standard deviation). The p value compares differences between the groups using Student’s t-test. BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, VTDR vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy