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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data of the study population

From: Current epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes: a national multicenter study in Brazil

Variable  
N 1644
Demographic characteristics
 Gender, female, n (%) 917 (55.8)
 Age, years 30.1 ± 12.0
 Age of diagnosis, years 14.6 ± 8.9
 Duration of diabetes, years 15.3 ± 9.3
 Years of formal education, years 12.3 ± 3.8
 Economic status, n (%)
  High 49 (3.0)
  Medium 745 (45.3)
  Low 795 (48.4)
  Very low 55 (3.3)
Clinical data
 HbA1c (%) 9.0 ± 2.1
 HbA1c, mean (SD), mmol/mol 74.5 ± 23.1
 Diet adherence > 80%, n (%) 846 (58.4)
 Insulin regimens, n (%)
  Intermediate or long acting 80 (4.9)
  Intermediate/long plus short acting 1.510 (91.8)
  CSII 54 (3.3)
 Serum uric acid, mean (SD), mg/dL 5.1 ± 1.8
 HDL cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 56.8 ± 19.1
 LDL cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 109.8 ± 40.8
 Triglycerides, mean (SD), mg/dL 109.8 ± 84.6
 BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 24.2 ± 4.2
 Arterial hypertension, yes, n (%) 288 (17.5)
 Macrovascular disease, yes n (%) 57 (3.5)
 Use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, yes, n (%) 437 (26.6)
 Current smoker, yes, n (%) 86 (5.6)
 Chronic kidney disease, yes, n (%) 289 (16.4)
 Diabetic retinopathy, n (%)
  Absent 1055 (64.2)
  Mild non-proliferative 298 (18.1)
  Moderate non-proliferative 108 (6.6)
  Severe non-proliferative 11 (0.6)
  Proliferative 172 (10.4)
 Macular edema, yes, n (%) 44 (2.7)
  1. Notes: Data are presented as numbers (percentages) or means ± SD (standard deviation)
  2. Of the total patiens with DR (mild, moderate, severe and proliferative), 44 presented macular edema
  3. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, CSII continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL high density lipoprotein cholesterol