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Table 6 Estimated parameters from repeated mixed-effects regressions on selected outcomes

From: Let’s walk! Age reattribution and physical activity among older Hispanic/Latino adults: results from the ¡Caminemos! Randomized trial

  Pedometer YPAS -Total time YPAS - Energy expenditure YPAS -Activity dimensions
Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI
Fixed effects
 Intervention (ref = control) 80.7 −553.5715.0 0.6 −0.5,1.7 146.3 − 136.9429.5 2.5 −1.1,6.1
 Month
  1 − 355 −963.3253.4 −0.2 −1.1,0.6 − 51.5 −278.1175.1 5.8*** 2.6,9.0
  12 5090.4*** 4440.6,5740.1 0 −0.9,0.9 −24.6 − 266.8217.5 3.3 − 0.1,6.7
  24 7492.2*** 6796.0,8188.3 0.6 −0.3,1.6 93.6 −156.7343.9 6.7*** 3.2,10.2
 Group x month
  Treatment × 1 661.8 −210.5,1534.1 −0.1 −1.3,1.1 −42.8 − 369.0,283.5 − 1.6 −6.3,3.0
  Treatment ×  12 1094.3* 168.4,2020.2 −0.6 −1.9,0.7 −173.1 − 518.5172.2 − 0.2 −5.0,4.7
  Treatment × 24 831.8 − 145.4,1808.9 0.1 − 1.2,1.4 49.5 −303.5402.4 − 0.9 −5.8,4.1
 Age − 889.3*** − 1319.6,-459.1 −2.5*** − 3.3,-1.6 − 558.4*** −784.1,-332.6 −3.0* −5.5,-0.5
 Female (ref = male) − 666.1* − 1180.5,-151.7 2.2*** 1.1,3.2 258 −12.7528.7 − 4.4** −7.5,-1.4
 Education (ref = no schooling)
   ≤ 8th grade −158.2 − 776.7460.3 0.8 − 0.4,2.1 213.7 − 109.0,536.3 4.3* 0.7,7.9
  Some high school or more/other −248.3 − 906.9410.3 1.8** 0.4,3.2 423.8* 78.9768.7 4.9* 1.0,8.8
 Marital status (ref = never married)
  Married −56.9 − 754.0,640.3 0.8 −0.7,2.2 271.5 −95.7638.6 2 −2.1,6.2
  Separated/divorced −44 − 756.9668.8 0.2 − 1.3,1.6 36.4 − 337.0,409.8 4.4* 0.2,8.6
  Widowed 236.7 − 431.1904.5 0.2 −1.2,1.6 30.2 −319.6380.0 0.1 −3.8,4.0
 Income (ref = less than $20,000)
  $20,000 or more 63.5 − 512.9640.0 −0.2 −1.4,1.1 16.8 − 290.4324.0 0.1 −3.3,3.6
  Missing 490.4 −241.0,1221.7 −0.9 −2.4,0.7 − 225.3 − 610.6159.9 −2 −6.3,2.3
 Medical comorbidities −180.6* −328.8,-32.5 − 0.1 − 0.4,0.2 −40.4 − 117.9,37.1 −0.3 −1.2,0.6
 Body mass index (ref = underweight/normal)
  Overweight − 455 − 1054.8144.9 0.2 −1.1,1.5 52.9 − 263.6369.5 − 1.7 −5.2,1.9
  Obese − 605.0* − 1197.7,-12.4 − 0.1 − 1.3,1.1 −45.3 − 358.5267.9 −1.9 − 5.4,1.6
 SF-12 Physical 23.8* 2.3,45.4 0.1*** 0.1,0.2 32.6*** 21.3,44.0 0.3*** 0.2,0.4
 SF-12 Mental 7.1 −12.7,26.9 0.1* 0.0,0.1 10.2 −0.2,20.7 0 −0.1,0.1
 Acculturation −28.1 − 195.0,138.9 0 −0.3,0.4 31.7 −56.4119.8 −0.5 −1.5,0.5
 Intercept 3642.0*** 1742.4,5541.6 1.2 −2.7,5.2 223.2 −771.6,1218.0 24.6*** 13.4,35.8
Random effects
 Intercept 7.2*** 7.0,7.4 1.4*** 1.3,1.5 6.9*** 6.8,7.0 2.3*** 2.1,2.4
 Residual 8.2*** 8.1,8.2 1.6*** 1.6,1.7 7.2*** 7.2,7.3 3.0*** 2.9,3.0
 Sample size 1780   1955   1955   1953  
  ERA - Total score ERA - Physical health scale ERA - Mental health scale ERA - Cognitive function scale
Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI
Fixed effects
 Intervention (ref = control) −1.4 −4.6,1.8 −1 −4.7,2.8 −3 −7.2,1.2 −0.2 −4.1,3.6
 Month
  1 3.4** 1.0,5.8 4.0** 1.0,7.1 3.5* 0.3,6.6 2.8 −0.1,5.8
  12 2.5 −0.0,5.1 3.3 −0.0,6.6 1.6 −1.8,5.0 2.6 −0.6,5.8
  24 3.6** 0.9,6.2 4.4* 1.0,7.8 5.7** 2.2,9.2 0.6 −2.6,3.9
 Group x month
  Treatment × 1 1.8 −1.6,5.3 1.9 −2.6,6.3 3.6 −0.9,8.2 0 −4.3,4.2
  Treatment × 12 4.2* 0.6,7.8 2.3 −2.4,7.0 9.7*** 4.9,14.5 0.8 −3.7,5.3
  Treatment × 24 3.2 −0.5,6.9 3.6 −1.1,8.4 4.8 −0.1,9.8 1.2 −3.4,5.8
 Age −6.0*** −8.8,-3.3 −6.7*** −9.7,-3.8 −6.1*** −9.6,-2.6 −5.3*** −8.5,-2.2
 Female (ref = male) 4.9** 1.6,8.2 2.7 −0.8,6.3 8.5*** 4.3,12.7 3.4 −0.4,7.2
 Education (ref = no schooling)
   ≤ 8th grade 7.9*** 4.0,11.8 7.9*** 3.6,12.1 10.3*** 5.3,15.3 5.4* 1.0,9.9
  Some high school or more/other 12.3*** 8.1,16.4 10.4*** 5.9,14.9 17.6*** 12.3,23.0 8.9*** 4.1,13.7
 Marital status (ref = never married)
  Married −1.2 −5.6,3.3 −2.3 −7.1,2.5 0.8 −4.9,6.4 −2.3 −7.4,2.9
  Separated/divorced 0.5 −4.1,5.0 0.2 −4.7,5.1 1.8 −4.0,7.6 −0.8 −6.0,4.4
  Widowed 0.3 −4.0,4.5 −0.4 −5.0,4.2 1.5 −3.9,6.9 −0.4 −5.3,4.5
 Income (ref = less than $20,000)
  $20,000 or more 1.7 −2.0,5.5 2.6 −1.4,6.6 2.9 −1.8,7.7 −0.5 −4.8,3.7
  Missing 3.1 −1.6,7.7 2.1 −2.9,7.1 5.1 −0.8,11.1 2.1 −3.2,7.5
 Medical comorbidities −0.6 −1.5,0.4 −0.6 −1.6,0.5 − 0.6 −1.8,0.6 −0.6 − 1.7,0.5
 Body mass index (ref = underweight/normal)
  Overweight −1.2 −5.0,2.7 −3.3 −7.4,0.9 −1 − 5.9,3.9 0.8 −3.6,5.2
  Obese 0.2 −3.6,4.0 −0.8 −4.8,3.3 0.1 − 4.8,4.9 1.3 −3.0,5.7
 SF-12 Physical 0.4*** 0.3,0.5 0.4*** 0.3,0.6 0.5*** 0.3,0.6 0.3*** 0.1,0.5
 SF-12 Mental 0.4*** 0.3,0.6 0.3*** 0.1,0.4 0.7*** 0.5,0.8 0.3*** 0.2,0.5
 Acculturation 0.8 −0.2,1.9 −0.1 −1.3,1.0 1.3 −0.1,2.6 1.4* 0.1,2.6
 Intercept −12.2* −24.2,-0.1 −3.2 −16.2,9.8 −25.6** −41.0,-10.2 −7.4 − 21.2,6.4
Random effects
 Intercept 2.6*** 2.5,2.7 2.6*** 2.5,2.7 2.8*** 2.7,2.9 2.7*** 2.6,2.8
 Residual 2.7*** 2.6,2.7 2.9*** 2.9,3.0 2.9*** 2.9,3.0 2.9*** 2.8,2.9
 Sample size 1956   1956   1956   1955  
  Exercise self-efficacy Outcome expectation for exercise
Coefficient 95% CI Coefficient 95% CI
Fixed effects
 Intervention (ref = control) −0.2 −0.5,0.2 0.0 −0.1,0.1
 Month     
  1 0.2 −0.0,0.4 0.2*** 0.1,0.3
  12 0.3* 0.0,0.5 0.2*** 0.1,0.3
  24 0.4** 0.1,0.6 0.3*** 0.2,0.3
 Group x month
  Treatment × 1 0.2 −0.2,0.5 0.0 −0.1,0.1
  Treatment × 12 0.0 −0.3,0.4 0.0 −0.1,0.1
  Treatment × 24 0.4 −0.0,0.7 0.1 −0.0,0.2
 Age −0.9*** −1.2,-0.6 0.0 −0.1,0.0
 Female (ref = male) −0.1 −0.4,0.2 0.0 −0.0,0.1
 Education (ref = no schooling)
   ≤ 8th grade 0.2 −0.2,0.6 0.0 −0.1,0.1
  Some high school or more/other 0.4 −0.0,0.8 −0.1 − 0.2,0.0
 Marital status (ref = never married)
  Married 0 −0.5,0.4 0.0 −0.1,0.1
  Separated/divorced 0.2 −0.2,0.7 0.0 −0.1,0.1
  Widowed −0.2 −0.6,0.2 0.0 −0.1,0.1
 Income (ref = less than $20,000)
  $20,000 or more 0.2 −0.1,0.6 0.1 −0.0,0.1
  Missing 0.1 −0.4,0.6 0.1* 0.0,0.2
 Medical comorbidities −0.1 −0.2,0.0 0.0 −0.0,0.0
 Body mass index (ref = underweight/normal)
  Overweight −0.3 −0.7,0.1 0.0 −0.1,0.1
  Obese −0.3 −0.7,0.1 0.0 −0.1,0.1
 SF-12 Physical 0.1*** 0.1,0.1 0.0** 0.0,0.0
 SF-12 Mental 0.0* 0.0,0.0 0.0*** 0.0,0.0
 Acculturation 0.0 −0.2,0.1 0.0 −0.0,0.0
 Intercept 5.0*** 3.8,6.2 4.0*** 3.8,4.3
Random effects
 Intercept 0.3*** 0.2,0.3 −1.4*** −1.5,-1.3
 Residual 0.4*** 0.3,0.4 −0.9*** −0.9,-0.8
 Sample size 1893   1955  
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05