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Table 2 The association between socio-demographic factors and maternal health service utilization in Lao PDR (2000, 2012)

From: Trends of socioeconomic inequality in using maternal health care services in Lao People’s Democratic Republic from year 2000 to 2012

  ANC SBA
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
HH head ethnic (ref. Lao)
 Non-Lao ethnic 0.56c 0.47–0.66 0.71c 0.59–0.85
Education (ref. no schooling)
 Primary 2.32c 1.97–2.74 1.40c 1.12–1.70
 Secondary and higher 4.58c 3.70–5.68 3.71c 2.96–4.65
Residential Area (ref. urban)
 Rural 0.36c 0.29–0.43 0.29c 0.24–0.35
Wealth (ref. poorest quintile)
 Second quintile 1.81c 1.50–2.18 2.22c 1.76–2.80
 Third quintile 2.37c 1.92–2.92 3.58c 2.80–4.57
 Fourth quintile 2.75c 2.16–3.51 5.07c 3.87–6.63
 Richest quintile 3.41c 2.53–4.59 8.21c 5.99–11.27
Age (ref. age group:15–19)
 20–29 1.27b 1.04–1.55 0.82 0.66–1.01
 30–39 1.13 0.90–1.42 0.80* 0.61-0.99
 40–49 0.87 0.59–1.27 0.68 0.44–1.04
Access to media (ref. ever access to media)
 Non media access 0.51c 0.43–0.62 0.70b 0.56–0.88
Province (ref. Vientiane Capital)
 Phongsaly 0.32c 0.19–0.56 0.35c 0.20–0.61
 Luangnamtha 1.45 0.84–2.51 0.89 0.52–1.52
 Oudomxay 0.61a 0.37-0.99 0.46b 0.28–0.76
 Bokeo 0.65 0.39–1.08 0.76 0.46–1.25
 Huaphanh 0.53a 0.33-0.87 0.58a 0.36-0.94
 Luangprabang 0.72 0.44–1.17 0.44b 0.26–0.72
 Xayabury 1.14 0.69–1.90 0.46b 0.28–0.75
 Xiengkhuang 0.69 0.42–1.16 0.57a 0.35-0.87
 Vientiane province 1.04 0.63–1.72 0.54a 0.34-1.14
 Borikhamxay 0.53a 0.32-0.89 0.70 0.43–1.14
 Khammuane 0.46b 0.29–0.75 0.45b 0.28–0.72
 Savannakhet 0.57a 0.36-0.90 0.54b 0.35–0.83
 Saravane 0.77 0.48–1.22 0.65 0.41–1.01
 Sekong 0.63 0.38–1.01 0.41c 0.25–0.67
 Champasak 0.30c 0.19–0.48 0.33c 0.22–0.51
 Attapeu 0.49b 0.30–0.82 0.19c 0.11–0.33
Year (ref. year 2000)
 2012 1.11c 1.09–1.12 1.10c 1.08–1.11
Constant 2.41e-88 7.8e-102-7.4e-75 4.05e-80 3.3e-95-4.96e-65
  1. a: p-value<=0.05; b: p-value<=0.01; c: p-value<=0.001