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Table 1 Definitions used to categorise included studies

From: The economic burden of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Study design
 prospective cost study cost study informed by data gathered from a prospective cohort of patients
 retrospective cost study cost study informed by data collected from a retrospective cohort of patients, e.g. medical records, case notes
 database analysis analysis of patient records from an already existing database, e.g. health insurance claims, hospital reimbursements
 mathematical model mathematical model (+/− simulation) extrapolating primary data to produce original estimates beyond their original scope e.g. time and location
 survey cross-sectional study of patients +/− controls
 COI study cost-of-illness study evaluating the region or country-level economic consequences that the presence of disease and its outcomes exert on individuals and society as a whole
Study scope
 Institutional Study conducted in one or more health care facilities, with no specified geographical scope below national level and no evidence of a sampling procedure to ensure representativeness
 City Study conducted in health care facilities in a specified city
 Regional Study conducted in health care facilities in a specified sub-national administrative unit (e.g. region, province, state)
 National Study conducted at the national level, either through representative sampling of health care facilities or through modelling
 International Multi-country study
 Other Other than above or multiple categories
Economic perspective
 Patient Study reporting direct costs incurred only by patients (e.g. out-of-pocket payments)
 Provider Study reporting costs incurred by the health care provider (e.g. average unit cost of an inpatient day)
 Third-party payer Study reporting costs incurred at the level of a third-party payer (e.g. insurance fund, Ministry of Health vertical programme)
 Societal Study reporting some form of indirect cost, incurred at any level (e.g. value of lost productivity due to illness, effect of CVD on national income)
 Other Other perspectives (e.g. pharmaceutical sector) or multiple perspectives (e.g. patient and provider)
 Unclear Could not be determined based on the information provided