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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of patients according to years of starting cART or year of last observation

From: Impact of social determinants on antiretroviral therapy access and outcomes entering the era of universal treatment for people living with HIV in Italy

  Overall
N = 8023
2002–2006
N = 1543
2007–2011
N = 2166
2012–2016
N = 4314
p
Gender, n (%)
 Female 1434 (17.9%) 453 (29.4%) 368 (17.0%) 613 (14.2%) < 0.001
 Male 6589 (82.1%) 1090 (70.6%) 1798 (83.0%) 3701 (85.8%)
Age at first positive anti-HIV test, n (%)
 < 30 2582 (32.2%) 682 (44.2%) 637 (29.5%) 1263 (29.3%) < 0.001
 30–40 2646 (33.0%) 521 (33.8%) 742 (34.4%) 1383 (32.1%)
 40–50 1709 (21.3%) 221 (14.3%) 475 (22.0%) 1013 (23.5%)
 > 50 1079 (13.5%) 119 (7.7%) 305 (14.1%) 655 (15.2%)
Mode of HIV transmission, n (%)
 HS 2773 (34.6%) 590 (38.2%) 816 (37.7%) 1367 (31.7%) < 0.001
 PWID 1131 (14.1%) 509 (33.0%) 265 (12.2%) 357 (8.3%)
 MSM 3528 (44.0%) 342 (22.2%) 942 (43.5%) 2244 (52.0%)
 other/unknown 591 (7.4%) 102 (6.6%) 143 (6.6%) 346 (8.0%)
Education
 Elementary school 362 (4.5%) 162 (10.5%) 99 (4.6%) 101 (2.3%) < 0.001
 Junior high school 1803 (22.5%) 596 (38.6%) 528 (24.4%) 679 (15.7%)
 High school 2576 (32.1%) 423 (27.4%) 708 (32.7%) 1445 (33.5%)
 University 920 (11.5%) 101 (6.6%) 217 (10.0%) 602 (14.0%)
 Missing data 2362 (29.4%) 261 (16.9%) 614 (28.4%) 1487 (34.5%)
Employement
 Full time worker 3575 (44.6%) 703 (45.6%) 1100 (50.8%) 1772 (41.1%) < 0.001
 Unemployed 910 (11.3%) 307 (19.9%) 217 (10.0%) 386 (9.0%)
 Self employed 1231 (15.3%) 265 (17.2%) 304 (14.0%) 662 (15.4%)
 Temporary employed 192 (2.4%) 75 (4.9%) 45 (2.1%) 72 (1.7%)
 Student 296 (3.7%) 29 (1.9%) 75 (3.5%) 192 (4.5%)
 Retired 256 (3.2%) 40 (2.6%) 96 (4.4%) 120 (2.8%)
 Housewife 233 (2.9%) 103 (6.7%) 72 (3.3%) 58 (1.3%)
 Other/unknown 204 (2.5%) 18 (1.2%) 40 (1.9%) 146 (3.4%)
 Missing data 1126 (14.0%) 3 (0.2%) 217 (10.0%) 906 (21.0%)
Residency area
 Northern Italy 4540 (56.6%) 763 (49.5%) 1226 (56.6%) 2551 (59.1%) < 0.001
 Central Italy 2678 (33.4%) 517 (33.5%) 769 (35.5%) 1392 (32.3%)
 Southern Italy 805 (10.0%) 263 (17.0%) 171 (7.9%) 371 (8.6%)
Smokers
 No 3589 (44.7% 532 (34.5%) 1040 (48.0%) 2017 (46.8%) < 0.001
 Yes 3636 (45.3%) 787 (51.0%) 990 (45.7%) 1859 (43.1%)
 Not known 798 (10.0%) 224 (14.5%) 136 (6.3%) 438 (10.2%)
CDC stage
 C 714 (8.9%) 199 (12.9%) 219 (10.1%) 296 (6.9%) < 0.001
 A/B 7309 (91.1%) 1344 (87.1%) 1947 (89.9%) 4018 (93.1%)
Pre treatment CD4 cell/mmc
 < =200 1630 (20.3%) 404 (26.2%) 508 (23.5%) 718 (16.6%) < 0.001
 201–350 1952 (24.3%) 516 (33.4%) 699 (32.3%) 737 (17.1%)
 351–500 1761 (22.0%) 251 (16.3%) 473 (21.8%) 1037 (24.0%)
 500-max 1913 (23.8%) 308 (20.0%) 291 (13.4%) 1314 (30.5%)
 Missing data 767 (9.6%) 64 (4.2%) 195 (9.0%) 508 (11.8%)
Pre treatment log10 HIV RNA
 < 4 1844 (23.0%) 385 (25.0%) 427 (19.7%) 1032 (23.9%) 0.012
 4–4.7 1961 (24.4%) 379 (24.6%) 524 (24.2%) 1058 (24.5%)
 4.8–5.2 1644 (20.5%) 363 (23.5%) 478 (22.1%) 803 (18.6%)
 5.2+ 1590 (19.8%) 316 (20.5%) 488 (22.5%) 786 (18.2%)
 Missing data 984 (12.3%) 100 (6.5%) 249 (11.5%) 635 (14.7%)
Pregnancy status
 Not pregnant 7715 (96.2%) 1517 (98.3%) 2109 (97.4%) 4089 (94.8%) < 0.001
 Pregnant 30 (0.4%) 5 (0.3%) 7 (0.3%) 18 (0.4%)
 Missing data 278 (3.5%) 21 (1.4%) 50 (2.3%) 207 (4.8%)