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Table 3 Hierarchical regression results: ACEs as a three-category exposure

From: Stress begets stress: the association of adverse childhood experiences with psychological distress in the presence of adult life stress

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 (with interaction)
Chi2 Δ 103.3 a 110.0 123.3 129.6
Level of ACEs
 None (0 ACEs) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Low (1 to 5) 3.21 (1.83–5.63) 3.48 (1.81–6.67) 2.97 (1.53–5.72) 2.49 (0.92–6.72)
 High (6 or more) 7.98 (4.28–14.91) 8.57 (4.19–17.53) 6.54 (3.14–13.63) 7.67 (1.90–30.94)
Level of ACEs
 No stressful life events#No ACEs     Ref
 Low stress#Low ACES     2.02 (0.47–8.59)
 Low stress#High ACEs     1.33 (0.22–7.95)
 High stress#Low ACEs     0.10 (0.009–0.98)
 High stress#High ACEs     0.08 (0.006–0.95)
Age 1.10 (0.85–1.40) 1.09 (0.84–1.44) 1.09 (0.84–1.45) 1.09 (0.83–1.44)
Gender
 Male Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female 2.61 (1.97–3.45) 2.67 (1.97–3.63) 2.71 (2.00–3.71) 2.77 (2.03–3.79)
Marital status
 Single Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Relationship 0.70 (0.53–0.93) 0.68 (0.50–0.92) 0.67 (0.49–0.92) 0.66 (0.49–0.91)
SES   0.91 (0.85–0.98) 0.91 (0.84–0.98) 0.91 (0.84–0.98)
Completed matric
 No   Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   0.79 (0.57–1.09) 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 0.81 (0.58–1.13)
Employment
 No   Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   0.79 (0.59–1.07) 0.80 (0.59–1.09) 0.80 (0.59–1.08)
Adult stress
 None    Ref Ref
 Low    1.84 (1.26–2.68) 0.99 (0.25–3.98)
 High    2.25 (1.35–3.74) 21.92 (2.35–204.86)
  1. aBold: Likelihood ratio chi-square test significant at p < 0.05; #Bold OR: significant at p < 0.05; ^Interaction terms