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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study populations categorized by early pregnancy BMI tertiles

From: Does body mass index early in pregnancy influence the risk of maternal anaemia? An observational study in Indonesian and Ghanaian women

Early pregnancy BMI Indonesian cohort P value Ghanaian cohort P value
  Lower tertile (n = 145) Middle tertile (n = 143) Upper tertile (n = 148) Lower tertile (n = 334) Middle tertile (n = 329) Upper tertile (n = 336)
BMI tertile range 12.5, 20.6 20.7, 24.3 24.4, 39.2   15.4, 23.1 23.1, 27.0 27.1, 42.3  
Maternal characteristics
 Age (y) 26.5 (6.06) 29.1 (5.18) 30.2 (6.06) < 0.0011 26.3 (4.5) 28.0 (5.3) 29.7 (5.0) < 0.0011
 Height (cm) 156.7 (5.7) 155.8 (5.9) 155.4 (5.8) 0.151 161.4 (6.4) 161.3 (6.6) 160.5 (6.4) 0.141
 Weight (kg) 45.6 (4.5) 54.7 (5.0) 67.5 (8.6) < 0.0011 53.8 (6.1) 64.7 (6.2) 79.1 (9.4) < 0.0011
Education (%)     0.792     0.372
low 25 (17.4) 22 (15.4) 25 (16.9)   88 (26.3) 83 (25.2) 69 (20.5)  
medium 94 (65.3) 90 (62.9) 89 (60.1)   214 (64.1) 206 (62.6) 223 (66.4)  
high 25 (17.4) 31 (21.7) 34 (23.0)   32 (9.6) 40 (12.2) 44 (13.1)  
Employment (%)     0.022     0.262
not working 67 (46.5) 66 (47.1) 87 (58.8)   47 (14.1) 50 (15.2) 35 (10.4)  
non-formal 8 (5.6) 13 (9.3) 17 (11.5)   245 (73.4) 237 (72.0) 265 (78.9)  
formal 69 (47.9) 61 (43.6) 44 (29.7)   42 (12.6) 42 (12.8) 36 (10.7)  
Second hand smoking (%) 31 (57.4) 34 (66.7) 35 (56.5) 0.492     
Obstetric characteristics
 Gestational age (wk)a 9.1 (3.4) 8.7 (3.5) 9.4 (3.3) 0.143 12.2 (2.9) 12.3 (2.8) 11.7 (3.0) 0.113
Gravidity (%)     < 0.0012     < 0.0012
primigravida 67 (57.8) 39 (34.5) 34 (27.0)   99 (29.6) 80 (24.3) 44 (13.1)  
multigravida 49 (42.2) 74 (65.5) 92 (73.0)   235 (70.4) 249 (75.7) 292 (86.9)  
Clinical characteristics
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) 12.0 (1.3) 12.4 (1.1) 12.6 (1.0) < 0.0011 10.9 (1.8) 11.1 (1.4) 11.5 (1.5) < 0.0011
 MCV below 80.0 fL (%) 42 (29.0) 27 (19.0) 29 (19.9) 0.082     
Comorbiditiesb      56 (16.8) 52 (15.8) 46 (13.7) 0.532
Birth outcomes
 Low birth weight (%) 7 (6.4) 5 (4.5) 5 (4.0) 0.682 22 (8.8) 20 (7.7) 16 (6.0) 0.492
 Prematurity (%) 5 (4.5) 5 (4.5) 7 (5.7) 0.892 18 (7.4) 22 (8.9) 20 (8.0) 0.832
 Stillbirth (%) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 1.004 3 (1.2) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.4) 0.464
  1. Significant at P value< 0.005; 1 One-way ANOVA; 2 Chi-square; 3 Kruskal-Wallis; 4 Fisher’s exact test with N < 5
  2. aat first ANC visit and based upon last menstrual period or ultrasound
  3. bred blood cell affecting comorbidities including sickle cell disease, G6PD deficiency and malaria infection