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Table 6 Summary of included reviews reporting studies of multiple policy interventions

From: The effects of public health policies on health inequalities in high-income countries: an umbrella review

Study No. of relevant studies Context (setting, country, search timeframe) Intervention(s) Summary of results AMSTAR quality appraisal (derived from R-AMSTAR)
Brown et al. 2014 [20] 4 (117) Studies based in a country at stage 4 of the tobacco epidemic or in the WHO European Region, 1995–2013 Multiple policies: Smokefree legislation, cigarette tax/price increase, mass media campaign, free NRT, cigarette text warning labels, tobacco advertising ban, youth access law. Three studies found equal effects of multiple policies across SES groups. One study found that a combination of a smoking ban and two tax increases led to a widening of health inequality. 28 (medium)
McLaren et al. 2016 [28] 2 (25) Males and females, of any age, living, in any geographic region worldwide; Searches from database start date to 5 January 2015 Population-level interventions in government jurisdictions for dietary sodium reduction. Interventions combining education campaigns with regulation, had little effect on health inequalities and SES inequalities in salt intake remain. 37 (high)
Croker-Buque et al. 2016 [46] 4 (41) Children and adolescents, OECD countries, April 2008 – November 2015 Complex interventions incorporating education and enhanced health services. Complex interventions incorporating education and enhanced health services may be effective in younger children (≤2 years) and boys, when targeted at disadvantaged groups, but there is some evidence of widening health inequalities from universal complex interventions. 22 (low)