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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants by self-rated health statusa

From: Association between multiple comorbidities and self-rated health status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: the China Kadoorie Biobank study

Variable Total
(n = 512,889)
Global Self-rated Health Age-comparative Self-rated Health
Good
(n = 234,699)
Fair/Poor
(n = 278,190)
P Valueb Better
(n = 93,235)
Same (n = 321,218) Worse
(n = 82,745)
P Valueb
Age, mean (SD), y 51.53 (10.68) 50.27 (10.43) 52.59 (10.77) < 0.001 51.14 (10.78) 51.27 (10.60) 52.45 (10.67) < 0.001
Female gender 302,631 (59.01) 131,178 (55.89) 171,453 (61.63) < 0.001 50,321 (53.97) 188,751 (58.76) 53,568 (64.74) < 0.001
Physical activity, mean (SD), MET h/wk 21.08 (13.87) 22.89 (14.18) 19.55 (13.42) < 0.001 21.60 (13.73) 21.60 (13.97) 19.08 (13.58) < 0.001
BMI, mean (SD) 23.66 (3.38) 23.76 (3.24) 23.57 (3.49) < 0.001 24.06 (3.22) 23.59 (3.32) 23.52 (3.73) < 0.001
Rural residence 286,703 (55.90) 129,793 (55.30) 156,910 (56.40) < 0.001 41,771 (44.80) 193,272 (60.17) 46,787 (56.64) < 0.001
Married currently 464,607 (90.59) 216,143 (92.09) 248,464 (89.31) < 0.001 84,713 (90.86) 292,908 (91.19) 73,271 (88.55) < 0.001
Educational leveld     < 0.001     < 0.001
 No formal school 95,220 (18.57) 42,999 (18.32) 52,221 (18.77)   13,235 (14.20) 59,244 (18.44) 19,440 (23.49)  
 Primary School 165,216 (32.21) 70,612 (30.09) 94,604 (34.01)   24,664 (26.45) 108,479 (33.77) 27,045 (32.68)  
 Middle or high School 222,439 (43.37) 105,233 (44.84) 117,206 (42.13)   46,579 (49.96) 136,627 (42.53) 32,654 (39.46)  
 College or university 30,014 (5.85) 15,855 (6.76) 14,159 (5.09)   8757 (9.39) 16,868 (5.25) 3606 (4.36)  
Annual income, Chinese Yuand    < 0.001     < 0.001
 0–9999 144,832 (28.24) 56,688 (24.15) 88,144 (31.68)   25,112 (26.93) 83,500 (25.99) 32,365 (39.11)  
 10,000–19,999 149,013 (29.05) 64,685 (27.56) 84,328 (30.31)   26,804 (28.75) 94,432 (29.40) 23,573 (28.49)  
 20,000–34,999 126,719 (24.71) 62,152 (26.48) 64,567 (23.21)   22,374 (24.00) 84,697 (26.37) 16,195 (19.57)  
 > 35,000 92,325 (18.00) 51,174 (21.80) 41,151 (14.79)   18,945 (20.32) 58,589 (18.24) 10,612 (12.82)  
Employment status     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Retired 84,939 (16.56) 33,170 (14.13) 51,769 (18.61)   17,709 (18.99) 49,313 (15.35) 13,997 (16.92)  
 Employed 352,574 (68.74) 173,032 (73.73) 179,542 (64.54)   65,553 (70.31) 226,383 (70.48) 52,381 (63.30)  
 Unemployed 75,376 (14.70) 28,497 (12.14) 46,879 (16.85)   9973 (10.70) 45,522 (14.17) 16,367 (19.78)  
Current smoker 135,554 (26.43) 67,957 (28.95) 67,597 (24.30) < 0.001 27,937 (29.96) 85,405 (26.59) 18,733 (22.64) < 0.001
Current alcohol drinker 87,847 (17.13) 46,470 (19.80) 41,377 (14.87) < 0.001 21,328 (22.88) 53,474 (16.65) 10,975 (13.26) < 0.001
Family history of five diseasesc 197,147 (38.44) 89,283 (45.29) 107,864 (54.71) < 0.001 39,772 (42.66) 116,535 (36.28) 35,936 (43.43) < 0.001
Cardiometabolic diseases
 Coronary heart disease 15,472 (3.02) 3181 (1.36) 12,291 (4.42) < 0.001 1605 (1.72) 7622 (2.37) 5861 (7.08) < 0.001
 Rheumatic heart disease 938 (0.18) 152 (0.06) 786 (0.28) < 0.001 69 (0.07) 361 (0.11) 482 (0.58) < 0.001
 Stroke 8884 (1.73) 1612 (0.69) 7272 (2.61) < 0.001 723 (0.78) 3608 (1.12) 4312 (5.21) < 0.001
 Hypertension 174,480 (34.02) 72,583 (30.93) 101,897 (36.63) < 0.001 28,007 (30.34) 108,330 (33.72) 32,531 (39.31) < 0.001
 Diabetes 30,300(5.91) 9159(3.90) 21,141(7.60) < 0.001 3709(3.98) 16,453(5.12) 9018(10.90) < 0.001
Respiratory diseases
 Tuberculosis 7660 (1.49) 2535 (1.08) 5125 (1.84) < 0.001 1255 (1.35) 4209 (1.31) 1996 (2.41) < 0.001
 Emphysema/bronchitis 13,289 (2.59) 3242 (1.38) 10,047 (3.61) < 0.001 1291 (1.38) 6276 (1.95) 5233 (6.32) < 0.001
 Asthma 2806 (0.55) 695 (0.30) 2111 (0.76) < 0.001 278 (0.30) 1322 (0.41) 1127 (1.36) < 0.001
Musculoskeletal diseases
 Fracture 35,448 (6.91) 16,416 (6.99) 19,032 (6.84) 0.0312 6711 (7.20) 21,213 (6.60) 6377 (7.71) < 0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis 10,626 (2.07) 2928 (1.25) 7698 (2.77) < 0.001 1312 (1.41) 5318 (1.66) 3467 (4.19) < 0.001
Mental diseases
 Depressive symptoms 3281 (0.64) 704 (0.30) 2577 (0.93) < 0.001 319 (0.34) 1375 (0.43) 1502 (1.82) < 0.001
 Psychiatric disorders 1906 (0.37) 512 (0.22) 1394 (0.50) < 0.001 145 (0.16) 868 (0.27) 815 (0.98) < 0.001
 Neurasthenia 5699 (1.11) 1503 (0.64) 4196 (1.51) < 0.001 673 (0.72) 2702 (0.84) 2208 (2.67) < 0.001
Digestive diseases
 Cirrhosis/chronic hepatitis 6195 (1.21) 2098 (0.89) 4097 (1.47) < 0.001 680 (0.73) 3499 (1.09) 1707 (2.06) < 0.001
 Peptic ulcer 20,017 (3.90) 6666 (2.84) 13,351 (4.80) < 0.001 2869 (3.08) 10,818 (3.37) 5610 (6.78) < 0.001
 Gallstone/gallbladder disease 31,001 (6.04) 10,862 (4.63) 20,139 (7.24) < 0.001 4327 (4.64) 17,064 (5.31) 8685 (10.50) < 0.001
Cancer 2577 (0.50) 567 (0.24) 2010 (0.72) < 0.001 217 (0.23) 1112 (0.35) 1174 (1.42) < 0.001
Other diseases
 Kidney disease 7577 (1.48) 2401 (1.02) 5176 (1.86) < 0.001 1133 (1.22) 3664 (1.14) 2574 (3.11) < 0.001
 Head injury 5653 (1.10) 2335 (0.99) 3318 (1.19) < 0.001 1029 (1.10) 3182 (0.99) 1272 (1.54) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent
  2. aData are presented as frequency (percentage) unless otherwise indicated
  3. bTwo-sided P values were derived from ANOVA for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables
  4. cIncluding family history of diabetes, heart attack, stroke, mental disorders and cancer
  5. dThe percentages may not add up to 100% because of rounding