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Table 3 Multiple log-linear regression models explaining weekly and relative gambling expenditure

From: Gambling expenditure by game type among weekly gamblers in Finland

  Weekly gambling expenditure (€) Relative gambling expenditure (%)
  exp(β) 95% CI exp(β) CI 95% CI
Gender
 Female 1.0   1.0  
 Male 1.39*** 1.28–1.50 1.22*** 1.12–1.34
Age group
 65–74 1.0   1.0  
 55–64 0.97 0.87–1.08 0.89 0.79–1.01
 45–54 0.90 0.80–1.01 0.77*** 0.67–0.88
 35–44 0.87* 0.76–0.99 0.76*** 0.65–0.88
 25–34 0.74*** 0.64–0.85 0.86 0.73–1.01
 18–24 0.69*** 0.59–0.82 1.79*** 1.48–2.16
Education level
 Master’s or equivalent 1.0   1.0  
 Bachelor’s or equivalent 1.32*** 1.14–1.53 1.66*** 1.41–1.95
 Short cycle tertiary education 1.40*** 1.21–1.61 1.96*** 1.67–2.30
 Basic vocational qualification 1.48*** 1.30–1.68 2.20*** 1.90–2.54
 Upper secondary 1.17 0.98–1.40 1.97*** 1.61–2.40
 Up to lower secondary education 1.48*** 1.28–1.72 2.88*** 2.43–3.41
Overall gambling frequency
 Rarely than monthly 1.0   1.0  
 1–3 times a month 4.68*** 4.21–5.20 5.00*** 4.44–5.63
 Once a week or more 14.20*** 11.91–16.93 16.22*** 13.29–19.78
Number of game types
 1 1.0   1.0  
 2 1.06 0.93–1.19 1.07 0.93–1.23
 3 1.24* 1.05–1.47 1.32** 1.08–1.60
 4 or more 1.52** 1.19–1.94 1.62** 1.23–2.13
Gambling mode
 Strictly land-based 1.0   1.0  
 Online 1.10* 1.00–1.20 1.01 0.92–1.12
Weekly lottery games
 Non-player 1.0   1.0  
 Less than once a week 0.88 0.76–1.01 0.67*** 0.56–0.79
 At least once a week 1.17 0.97–1.42 0.83 0.67–1.03
Low-paced daily lottery games
 Non-player 1.0   1.0  
 Less than once a week 1.08 0.97–1.21 1.03 0.91–1.17
 At least once a week 1.67*** 1.44–1.93 1.62*** 1.37–1.91
Scratch games
 Non-player 1.0   1.0  
 Less than once a week 0.99 0.89–1.10 0.91 0.81–1.03
 At least once a week 1.79*** 1.37–2.33 1.44* 1.07–1.94
Betting games
 Non-player 1.0   1.0  
 Less than once a week 1.20** 1.05–1.36 1.16* 1.01–1.34
 At least once a week 1.78*** 1.49–2.12 1.80*** 1.47–2.20
Slot machines
 Non-player 1.0   1.0  
 Less than once a week 0.84** 0.75–0.95 0.83** 0.73–0.94
 At least once a week 1.31** 1.10–1.56 1.43*** 1.18–1.74
Horse games
 non-player 1.0   1.0  
 less than once a week 1.09 0.93–1.27 1.08 0.91–1.30
 at least once a week 2.46*** 1.82–3.31 2.55*** 1.82–3.57
Online poker
 non-player 1.0   1.0  
 less than once a week 1.27* 1.03–1.58 1.24 0.97–1.58
 at least once a week 1.83* 1.13–2.97 1.79* 1.03–3.09
Non-monopoly gambling
 non-player 1.0   1.0  
 less than once a week 1.06 0.94–1.19 1.03 0.89–1.18
 at least once a week 4.09*** 2.68–6.25 3.59*** 2.23–5.79
  1. Weighted based on gender, age and region of residence (N = 3202 in WGE model and N = 3194 in RGE model). Significance probabilities * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001