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Table 2 Age-adjusted prevalences of substance use by ethnicity and gender1

From: The prevalence of substance use among Russian, Somali and Kurdish migrants in Finland: a population-based study

  Russian Somali Kurdish General population
  Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
  n % p* n % p* n % p* n % p* n % p* n % p* n % n %
Frequency of alcohol use
 None 32 11 < 0.01 71 16 < 0.01 208 98 < 0.01 263 100 < 0.01 172 51 < 0.01 244 85 < 0.01 39 7 53 8
 Occasional 186 73   310 70   3 2   1 0   143 45   44 15   233 53 439 66
 Frequent 33 16   56 14   0 0   0 0   10 3   0    221 39 180 25
 p**       0.26       0.07       < 0.01     < 0.01
Usual number of alcohol units consumed
 No alcohol use 24 11 < 0.01 43 11 < 0.01 151 98 < 0.01 185 100° < 0.01 134 47 < 0.01 193 85 < 0.01 39 8 53 9
 1–2 79 41   234 66   1 1   0    50 18   20 9   166 31 328 46
 3–6 65 40   62 22   1 1   0    79 30   15 6   190 37 238 37
  > 7 17 9   2 0   0    0    14 5   1 0   97 23 47 8
 p**       < 0.01       0.28       < 0.01     < 0.01
Frequency of binge drinking
 No alcohol use 23 11 < 0.01 42 11 < 0.01 151 98 < 0.01 185 100° < 0.01 134 47 < 0.01 193 84 < 0.01 39 8 53 9
 Never 45 25   215 59   0    0    74 27   23 9   29 6 143 20
 Occasionally 98 56   79 28   2 2   0    62 24   14 6   322 65 430 65
 Frequently 20 9   4 2   0    0    7 3   0 0   102 22 43 7
 P**       < 0.01       0.11       < 0.01     < 0.01
Risky drinking
 Yes 41 23 < 0.01 58 21 < 0.01 0 < 0.01 0 < 0.01 26 10 < 0.01 8 3 < 0.01 216 45 326 50
 p**       0.53             < 0.01     0.13
Lifetime regular smoking
 Yes 107 55 0.03 105 33 < 0.01 18 8 < 0.01 1 0 < 0.01 106 39 < 0.01 17 7 < 0.01 203 64 209 52
 p**       < 0.01       < 0.01       < 0.01     0.01
Current smoking
 No smoking 170 65 0.04 374 84 0.02 179 89 < 0.01 259 99 < 0.01 224 68 < 0.01 266 93 < 0.01 345 68 517 76
 Occasional 15 7   23 7   4 1   1 0   7 2   5 2   56 12 54 9
 Daily 66 28   40 10   27 10   2 1   94 29   16 5   83 20 96 15
 p**       < 0.01       < 0.01       < 0.01     0.01
Daily consumption of cigarettes
 None 83 49   238 70   135 92   182 100   182 65   215 94      
 1 to 10 41 19   76 25   12 6   1 0   35 13   11 5      
 ≥ 11 57 32   17 5   5 2   0 0   58 22   3 1      
 p**       < 0.01       0.01       < 0.01     
Lifetime use of cannabis
 Yes 45 21   38 14   0   0   15 6   2 1      
 p**       < 0.01             < 0.01     
Cannabis use during the previous 12 months
 Yes 13 9   4 2   0   0   8 3   0      
 p**       < 0.01             < 0.01     
Lifetime use of intravenous drugs
 Yes 1 8 × 10−10   1 9 × 10−10   0   0   1 9 × 10−10   0 0      
 p**       0.53             0.55     
  1. 1comparison between migrant group and general population by gender
  2. * in comparison to the general population ** between sexes °without age-adjustment