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Table 1 Baseline characteristicsa by sleep duration, the Health Examinees-Gem (HEXA-G) study 2004–2013

From: Association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study

  Sleep Duration
Total < 6 h 6 to < 8 h 8 to < 10 h ≥10 h p-valueb
Men, N 44,930 4906 (10.9) 29,141 (64.9) 10,213 (22.7) 670 (1.5)  
Age, years 53.6 ± 8.4 54.1 ± 8.5 53.0 ± 8.3 54.7 ± 8.3 56.6 ± 7.8 < 0.001
Education       < 0.001
 Middle school or below 9672 (21.5) 1149 (23.4) 5461 (18.7) 2794 (27.4) 268 (40.0)  
 High school graduate 18,390 (40.9) 1967 (40.1) 11,843 (40.6) 4301 (42.1) 279 (41.6)  
 College or above 16,368 (36.4) 1726 (35.2) 11,511 (39.5) 3015 (29.5) 116 (17.3)  
Occupation       < 0.001
 Non-manual 14,569 (32.4) 1573 (32.1) 10,311 (35.4) 2587 (25.3) 98 (14.6)  
 Manual 20,960 (46.7) 2341 (47.7) 13,348 (45.8) 4933 (48.3) 338 (50.5)  
 Unemployed 8440 (18.8) 897 (18.3) 4918 (16.9) 2411 (23.6) 214 (31.9)  
Married 42,187 (93.9) 4505 (91.8) 27,417 (94.1) 9643 (94.4) 622 (92.8) < 0.001
Current smokers 18,732 (41.7) 2132 (43.5) 11,856 (40.7) 4486 (43.9) 258 (38.5) 0.009
Current drinkers 32,642 (72.7) 3434 (70.0) 21,539 (73.9) 7209 (70.6) 460 (68.7) < 0.001
Regular exercisers 25,671 (57.1) 2642 (53.9) 17,073 (58.6) 5634 (55.2) 322 (48.1) < 0.001
Dietary intake (k/cal) 1861.4 ± 562.6 1864.1 ± 591.3 1865.7 ± 552.2 1847.6 ± 571.4 1861.1 ± 651.2 0.048
Women, N 88,678 11,277 (12.7) 53,764 (60.6) 22,124 (24.9) 1513 (1.7)  
Age, years 52.3 ± 7.8 53.8 ± 7.7 52.0 ± 7.7 52.2 ± 7.9 52.2 ± 8.0 < 0.001
Education       < 0.001
 Middle school or below 32,325 (36.5) 4842 (42.9) 18,414 (34.3) 8406 (38.0) 663 (43.8)  
 High school graduate 38,159 (43.0) 4373 (38.8) 23,673 (44.0) 9488 (42.9) 625 (41.3)  
 College or above 17,209 (19.4) 1905 (16.9) 11,128 (20.7) 3964 (17.9) 212 (14.0)  
Occupation       < 0.001
 Non-manual 11,558 (13.0) 1356 (12.0) 7873 (14.6) 2232 (10.1) 97 (6.4)  
 Manual 22,701 (25.6) 3296 (29.2) 14,124 (26.3) 4991 (22.6) 290 (19.2)  
 Unemployed 52,185 (58.9) 6400 (56.8) 30,475 (56.7) 14,240 (64.4) 1070 (70.7)  
Married 76,725 (86.5) 9301 (82.5) 46,923 (87.3) 19,237 (87.0) 1264 (83.5) < 0.001
Post-menopausal 50,306 (56.7) 7125 (63.2) 30,034 (55.9) 12,322 (55.7) 825 (54.5) < 0.001
Current smokers 1896 (2.1) 311 (2.8) 970 (1.8) 555 (2.5) 60 (4.0) < 0.001
Current drinkers 27,104 (30.6) 3358 (29.8) 16,642 (31.0) 6650 (30.1) 454 (30.0) 0.018
Regular exercisers 45,371 (51.2) 5384 (47.7) 27,961 (52.0) 11,312 (51.1) 714 (47.2) < 0.001
Dietary intake (k/cal) 1711.6 ± 583.0 1674.0 ± 590.1 1714.1 ± 566.9 1721.7 ± 606.6 1753.6 ± 715.6 < 0.001
  1. aValues are means ±SD or n (%)
  2. bp-values for differences among sleep duration categories were calculated by chi-square tests for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables