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Table 3 Pregnancy and delivery related factors based on type of delivery

From: High prevalence of cesarean section births in private sector health facilities- analysis of district level household survey-4 (DLHS-4) of India

Variables Categories Normal Caesarean Chi-Square P-Value
Antenatal care related   N (%) N (%)   
4 + ANC Yes 8236 (73.1) 3035 (26.9) 131.01 0.001
No 3413 (82) 749 (18)
Received abdomen check BP Blood Test and Urine Test at least once Yes 12,106 (75.6) 3913 (24.4) 127.63 0.001
No 1659 (87.1) 245 (12.9)
USG done Yes 9099 (73) 3360 (27) 325.87 0.001
No 4666 (85.4) 798 (14.6)
Main place of ANC Public 8163 (83.3) 1641 (16.7) 732.03 0.001
Private 4319 (64.9) 2335 (35.1)
Home 156 (80.4) 38 (19.6)
Complications during pregnancy
 Pallor/ weakness/ giddiness Yes 1515 (75.4) 495 (24.6) 2.61 0.106
No 12,258 (77) 3664 (23)
 Weak or no movement of foetus Yes 273 (72.4) 104 (27.6) 4.17 0.041
No 13,500 (76.9) 4055 (23.1)
 Abnormal position of fetus Yes 179 (73.4) 65 (26.6) 1.65 0.199
No 13,594 (76.9) 4094 (23.1)
 High Blood Pressure Yes 527 (64.9) 285 (35.1) 67.67 0.001
No 13,246 (77.4) 3874 (22.6)
 Bleeding Yes 143 (73.3) 52 (26.7) 1.34 0.248
No 13,630 (76.8) 4107 (23.2)
Delivery complications
 Convulsion Yes 370 (61.7) 230 (38.3) 79.77 0.001
No 13,400 (77.3) 3930 (22.7)
 Excessive bleeding Yes 718 (76.5) 221 (23.5) 0.06 0.803
No 13,052 (76.8) 3939 (23.2)
 Prolonged labour Yes 1085 (73.3) 396 (26.7) 11.34 0.001
No 12,685 (77.1) 3764 (22.9)
 Breach presentation Yes 243 (55.9) 192 (44.1) 109.67 0.001
No 13,527 (77.3) 3968 (22.7)
 Obstructed labour Yes 1350 (75.5) 439 (24.5) 2.01 0.158
No 12,420 (76.9) 3721 (23.1)
 Place of delivery Private 4380(62.1) 2674(37.9) 1413 0.001
Public 9394(86.3) 1486(13.7)
  1. Data missing: four or more antenatal care visits for 2501; Received abdomen check BP Blood Test and Urine Test at least once for 11; USG at least once for 11; Main place for 1282; Pallor/ weakness/ giddiness for 2; Weak or no movement of foetus for 2; Abnormal position of fetus for 2; High Blood Pressure for 2; Bleeding for 2; convulsion for 4; Prolonged labour for 4; Breach presentation for 4; Obstructed labour for 4