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Table 5 Prevalence of waterpipe smoking by gender and nationality

From: Cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use among an international sample of medical students. Cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary

  Waterpipe smokers  
  Total Males Females Difference between gendersa
Total sample
n = 2725
132 (4.8) 73 (7.0) 59 (3.5) p < 0.001
German students
n = 1207
51 (4.2) 30 (6.4) 21 (2.9) p = 0.003
Hungarian students
n = 996
57 (5.7) 27 (7.5) 30 (4.7) p = 0.067
Norwegian students
n = 138
4 (2.9) 1 (2.0) 3 (3.4) p = 0.656
Multinational group
n = 384
20 (5.2) 15 (8.9) 5 (2.3) p = 0.004
Difference among nationalitiesa p = 0.271 p = 0.353 p = 0.208  
  1. Data expressed as n (%). aPearsons chi2-test