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Table 3 Longitudinal analysis: Prediction of school grades at follow-up by the consumption of different screen-based media and different forms of physical activity at baseline

From: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of screen time and physical activity with school performance at different types of secondary school

  Outcomes at follow-up: school grades in
Predictors at baseline Mathematics German Physical Education
b CI (95%) b CI (95%) b CI (95%)
TV/video -0.01 -0.06 - 0.05 -0.02 -0.07 - 0.03 0.07** 0.02 - 0.13
Game console 0.04 -0.02 - 0.11 0.02 -0.04 - 0.08 0.01 -0.06 - 0.07
PC/internet 0.07* 0.01 - 0.12 0.04 -0.01 - 0.09 0.02 -0.03 - 0.07
Mobile phone 0.01 -0.03 - 0.06 0.01 -0.04 - 0.04 -0.02 -0.06 - 0.02
PA organized -0.01 -0.04 - 0.03 -0.02 -0.05 - 0.01 -0.03 -0.06 - 0.01
PA non-organized 0.03 -0.01 - 0.05 -0.01 -0.03 - 0.02 -0.07*** -0.11 - -0.04a
  1. Better school achievement is reflected by lower school grades (following the German grading system). All associations are adjusted for gender, age, SES, year of data assessment, BMI, type of school, the other predictors, and grades at baseline.
  2. b = regression coefficient, non-standardized, PA physical activity
  3. ain girls only, as revealed by a significant interaction between non-organized PA and grades in Physical Education
  4. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < .001.